experience in organizing and operating the resistance. The newly established Southern Armed Forces, consisting of revolutionary militia and Republican Guard divisions, lacked command staff, equipment and weapons, were confused in combat, complicated in organization and element.
The South is an area far from the central government (located outside the North), transportation and communication are difficult.
Especially, entering the resistance war, in a very difficult context, the Party organization system in the South, especially the leadership agency of the Party Committee, was still divided in terms of organization. The existence of two unresolved Party Committees during the days of the General Uprising to seize power caused the situation of "old Viet Minh", "new Viet Minh" "stomping on each other", enlisting and attracting the masses. . Both Party Committees have the defect of "doing not self-criticism and detracting, not loving each other and keeping each other's prestige ". This situation poses a great danger to the reputation and leadership of the Party, dangerous to the resistance movement of the South Vietnamese army and people.
The organizational principles of the Leninist proletarian Party and the practical requirements of the resistance war require the Southern Party to quickly reorganize its ranks and consolidate a centralized and unified leadership agency. organization, will and action, ensuring the mission of leading the national construction resistance war in the area.
126.96.36.199. Unifying the leadership of the Party, establishing the only Party Committee of the
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Recognizing the harmful effects of division in the leadership of the Party Committee, meeting the urgent requirements of the situation and implementing the organizational principles of the Marxist-Leninist party, under the direction of the Party Central Committee, dated 15 On October 10, 1945, the Southern Party Committee held a conference at Cau Vi (My Tho) to discuss measures to reorganize the organization. The conference was chaired by Comrade Hoang Quoc Viet, Standing Member of the Party Central Committee, the Central's envoy to support the Southern Party Committee.
The conference decided to dissolve the two Party Committees "Tien Phong" and the Party Committee of "Liberation", establishing a unified Party Committee named the provisional Southern Party Committee. The Party Committee consists of 11 comrades, including members of 2 (former) Party Committees and some comrades
Just returned from Con Dao , including: Ton Duc Thang, Le Duan, Pham Hung, Ung Van
Khiem, Ha Huy Giap, Nguyen Duc Thuan, Nguyen Van Kinh (Thuong Vu), Nguyen Thanh Son, Phan Trong Tue, Le Van Si, Dao Van Truong. The meeting unanimously elected (in absentia) Comrade Ton Duc Thang as the provisional Secretary of the Party Committee. The election of Comrade Ton Duc Thang to head the Party Committee, not only comes from his virtue and talent, but also shows the desire of the Conference to be a comrade with great prestige, trained in-house. The newly returned Con Dao prison will promote the central role, gather and build the unity of the entire Party Committee. The conference also agreed on a number of Provincial Party Committees and appointed secretaries in provinces that had two Party organization systems, which did not allow party members to operate individually.
After being organized, the Party Committee held an expanded conference at Thien Ho - My Tho on October 25, 1945, with the participation of comrades Hoang Quoc Viet, Ton Duc Thang, Le Duan.... The conference reviewed the situation, learned from experience in directing the Southern resistance war, and proposed urgent measures to strengthen and build forces such as bringing Party members into the army, placing the armed forces under the leadership. directly by the Party, to step up the work of eradication, to build secret bases in cities and towns encroached on by the enemy, to restore the government in broken places.
The conference focused on discussing the issue of strengthening the Party in order to build a unified Party organization, taking on the responsibility of leading the resistance in the South. At the proposal of Mr. Ton Duc Thang, the Conference appointed Le Duan as the provisional Secretary of the Party Committee; Ton Duc Thang is in charge of the Chairman of the Southern Resistance Committee and directs the armed forces [92, p.252].
Regarding the Party's core team, after the August Revolution, many cadres returned from the imperial prison, including comrades from Con Dao political prisoners such as Ton Duc Thang, Le Duan, Pham Hung, Le Van Luong, Phan Trong Tue, Nguyen Van Linh, Mai Chi Tho, Ho Van Long, Vu Thien Tan, ...
Also at this conference, the Party Committee assigned and assigned tasks to a number of officials: Nguyen Van Kinh in charge of Thong Nhat newspaper ; Nguyen Thanh A, Secretary of the Tan An Provincial Party Committee; Nguyen Van Long and Nguyen Oanh added to Thu Dau Mot Provincial Party Committee; Ly Chinh Thang, General Secretary of the Southern Trade Union; Nguyen Van Tu, Chairman of the Resistance Committee of Saigon - Cho Lon city....[57, p.27].
The above activities show the efforts of comrades in the South
in unifying the organization and strengthening the leadership role of the Party Committee.
However, after it was established, due to the fierce war situation, the enemy expanded to occupy, the battlefield was divided, the member countries had to disperse to lead the movement, on the other hand, within the Southern Party. There were still inherent contradictions before the General Uprising that had not been completely resolved, so the Party Committee faced many difficulties in operation.
At the beginning of 1946, due to the requirements of their duties, a number of key leaders of the Party and the Party Committee were working in the South, such as Hoang Quoc Viet, Cao Hong Lanh, Ton Duc Thang (Chairman of the Resistance Committee). South Vietnam), Tran Van Giau (Former Secretary of the Party Committee)... was summoned to Hanoi. In March 1946, Party Secretary Le Duan went to the North to report the situation in the South to the Central Government. With the key cadres going to the North, from March 1946, the Southern Party Committee faced many difficulties and could not perform the leadership role for the resistance movement. Meanwhile, because the South became a temporarily occupied area, Party organizations had to withdraw to operate at their bases. On the other hand, many inherent disagreements that could not be resolved continued to cause serious problems within the Southern Party. The problem of "old Viet Minh", "new Viet Minh" continued to emerge, causing conflicts in some places,
The big problem for the Southern Party Committee is to reorganize, improve
High quality of party cadres and members who are able to organize and lead the people
Resistance. Based on the current situation of Party committees throughout the country, the Party Central Committee realized that the reform of the Southern Party Committee was very important, having a decisive effect on the solid development of the resistance war in the region. this.
From May 25 to 27, 1946, the Party Central Committee convened Southern cadres and cadres in Hanoi to hold a meeting to discuss the issue of the South. The conference pointed out the shortcomings of the Southern Party Committee, especially suspicion, prejudice, pride, factionalism, leadership, hatred, division and disunity among a part of cadres in the Party. Male. The Party Central Committee pointed out: "While we have to struggle with an enemy more armed than us, and there is such complexity and confusion in our ranks, we will definitely fail" [62, p. sixty four].
The conference proposed the urgent task of: Reforming the Southern Party Committee, assigning tasks to comrades: Le Duan, Nguyen Thi Thap and Hoang Minh Chau to take responsibility before the Central Government to quickly return to the South with other leaders. Comrades who are currently active in the South established the "Southern Party Reform Committee" in charge of Le Duan to carry out the reform and reorganization of the Southern Party Committee. The Committee has the following tasks: to assign people to go to localities to match up and select party members with good qualities and active spirit to make a list, on that basis to establish Party sub-groups, eliminate minus the bad elements; admit new comrades among the elite, enthusiastic and honest masses to the Party; eradicating the remnants of "old Viet Minh", "new Viet Minh"; proceed to "Set up a provisional Party Committee and go to the full-term cadres conference to appoint an official Party Committee".
On May 30, 1946, the Standing Committee of the Party Central Committee and General Secretary Truong Chinh sent a letter to the comrades of the Southern Party Committee currently operating in the South, conveying the policy of the Conference, calling on "Southern Communist comrades Ministry... let's resolutely implement the method of reforming the Southern Party Committee in order to quickly make the Indochinese working class a sustainable, strong and unified pioneer party, worthy of their historical task. " [62, p.65].
The decision to reform the Southern Party Committee of the Party Central Committee promptly met the requirements of leading and directing the focus and unification of the increasingly fierce resistance war in a key region of the country.
Performing the tasks assigned by the Central Committee, three comrades Le Duan, Nguyen Thi Thap, Chau went to the South, along with Ha Huy Giap, Ung Van Khiem, Pham Hung... urgently implemented the reform of the Southern Party Committee and directed the The Party's affiliated Party Committee adheres to the general policy of the Party (withdrawing into secret activities, establishing Marxist research associations, etc.), conducting a review, reorganizing the organization, and eliminating degenerate elements from the Party. ; recruit new party members, establish bases in enterprises, develop the Party in the countryside, in the intelligentsia, in mass associations, in administrative agencies and in the army in a manner that is compatible with practical conditions. and the situation of resistance war, preparing to reorganize the Party Committee.
On October 1, 1946, the "Southern Party Reform Committee" issued a Notice on the establishment of the provisional Southern Party Committee, consisting of 9 members: 7 official comrades were Nguyen Van Kinh, Pham Hung, Nguyen Thi Thap , Nguyen Duc Thuan, Ung Van Khiem, Ha
Huy Giap, Tran Van Tra; two reserve members are Hoang Du Khuong and Ho . You
Standing Party Committee consists of 5 people: Nguyen Van Kinh, Ha Huy Giap, Nguyen Thi Thap, Nguyen Duc Thuan, Pham Hung [18; 19]. The provisional Party Committee is in charge of reforming the Party Committee and leading the entire people to resist, consolidating and expanding the national front, directing administrative and military agencies to prepare for the establishment of Official mandate.
In November 1946, the Provisional Party Committee held an expansion conference at the Five Thousand Kinh Kinh, belonging to the Dong Thap Muoi war zone - the base of the Southern Party Committee. Attendees included members of the Party Committee and representatives of the Inter-provincial Party Committees (Eastern, Central and Southwestern regions). The conference discussed the issues of supplementing personnel and strengthening the provisional Party Committee, including 10 members: Pham Hung, Ha Huy Giap, Ung Van Khiem, Nguyen Duc Cuc (Nguyen Van Cuc, Nguyen Van Linh),
The full name has not been determined yet
Tran Van Tra, Nguyen Duc Thuan, Phan Trong Tue, Nguyen Van Kinh, Hoang Du Khuong, Nguyen Van Tiep. Pham Hung was assigned as Secretary, Nguyen Van Kinh was in charge of the Standing Party Committee. The Conference decided to strengthen the Inter-provincial Party Committees; assign Nguyen Duc Thuan to be the Secretary of the Eastern Inter-provincial Party Committee; Nguyen Van Cuc is in charge of Saigon - Cho Lon.
At this Conference, the Party Committee decided to remove from the Party opportunistic elements, degenerate party members and reduce the will to fight in order to strengthen the unity of will and action within the Party Committee; make the leadership and direction of the Party from the village level to the grassroots level smooth [75, p.111; 77).
The Conference of the Southern Party Committee in November 1946 had an important significance in strengthening the unity of the Party Committee, setting up a smooth leadership and direction system from the local level to the grassroots level, and promptly strengthening the leadership role of the Party Committee. The Party, in the new situation since the September 14, 1946, "end of the period when the Southern Party Committee had to disperse and was unable to lead the resistance war in the South" [92, p.278].
Receiving news that the provisional Party Committee had been strengthened, in December 1946, the Central Party Committee continued to send letters to Southern comrades reminding them to resolutely fight against actions that caused disunity in the Southern Party. . The Party Central Committee affirmed: “Our Party needs to be strong and unified. Without a unified and strong Party, it is impossible to cope with the current situation. Unifying... consolidating the Party, developing the Party into a mass Party with full authority and full leadership capacity is the essential condition for the resistance war and nation building' [62, p.164].
The close attention and direction of the Party Central Committee is the driving force for the provisional Party Committee to step up its work and prepare the conditions for the establishment of the official Southern Party Committee.
1.1.2. The Southern Party Committee led the people to initiate the resistance movement
Although facing difficulties in organizing the apparatus and personnel, even
Even when the operation was stalled, the Southern Party Committee and its members raised the spirit of initiative in launching, leading the Southern people to start the resistance movement for national construction.
188.8.131.52. The Southern Party Committee launched and led the people to stand up against the French colonialists
Immediately after the French aggression in Saigon, on the morning of September 23, 1945, the Party Committee of and the Southern Administrative Committee held a conference at 269 Cay Mai Street (now Nguyen Trai Street, District 5). ) the policy of dealing with the invaders. The conference was attended by Hoang Quoc Viet, a representative of the Standing Committee of the Party Central Committee and the Viet Minh General Headquarters.
After discussing and promoting the spirit of initiative, the Conference agreed on the following policy: both to mobilize the people of the South to stand up against the French invaders and to report to the Central Party Committee and President Ho Chi Minh for instructions; resolution to establish the Southern Resistance Committee, appointing the Secretary of the Party Committee Tran Van Giau as Chairman; immediately launched the people's determination to resist, using revolutionary violence against the invaders [92, pp.236-237; 56]. Responding to the call of the Party Committee and Administrative Committee of the South, the people of the South, first of all the people of Saigon, Cho Lon and Gia Dinh, unitedly stood up against the invaders.
The policy of the Southern Party Committee has received the approval of the Provisional Government and the approval of President Ho Chi Minh. On September 26, 1945, in a Letter to compatriots in the South, President Ho Chi Minh wrote: "I am sure and compatriots in the South are also sure that the Government and the whole country will do their best to help the soldiers and the people. currently sacrificing to fight to maintain the country's independence” [62, p.14]. The encouragement of President Ho Chi Minh gave more strength to the people of the South to fight.
Ha determined to mobilize the people to stand up against the invaders
During the reporting period, consulting the Central Committee is a proactive decision.
Party Committee "Tien Phong". At this time, the South had 2 Party Committees as described.
Dare to do, dare to take responsibility of the Southern Party Committee, is to realize the spirit of the Declaration of Independence, to meet the people's aspirations in protecting the independence and freedom of the nation.
After mobilizing the people to stand up to the resistance, with the approval and encouragement of the Government and President Ho Chi Minh, anticipating the plots and actions of the invaders, the Party Committee ordered the evacuation of the elderly, children in inner city areas such as Saigon, Cho Lon, Gia Dinh, displaced to rural areas; at the same time, urgently move vehicles, machinery, equipment and records of Party, government and mass organizations out of the inner city, calling on the suburban people to destroy the resistance war. In terms of combat against the enemy, the Party Committee advocated the implementation of "Inside fighting outside the siege", forming fronts to encircle and imprison the enemy in the city.
Under the direct leadership of the Party Committee, the heroic and resilient fight of Saigon's army and people in Cho Lon-Gia Dinh held the French army in the city for a month, initially preventing the plan of "fighting quickly and winning." quickly", creating conditions for the Southern and South Central provinces to have more time to prepare for when the French army expanded its occupation.
From October 1945, the French army began to break through the encirclement lines, expanding the invasion to the southern provinces. Faced with that situation, only 10 days after its establishment, at the Expansion Conference (Thien Ho) on October 25, 1945, the provisional Party Committee of the Unified Country proposed many urgent measures to strengthen and build the strength of the Party. political power and placing the armed forces under the direct leadership of the Party; building secret bases in cities and towns occupied by the enemy; restore revolutionary government in places broken by the enemy; destroy evil, except evil; developing guerrilla, taking guerrilla war as the main, carrying out the destruction of the resistance war, preventing the advance of the enemy, mobilizing the masses and people to not cooperate with the French government and army. The policy of Thien Ho Conference initially established the basic contents for the Southern people to implement the all-people resistance war.