The Implementation of Policies and Laws on Social Insurance Has Negatively Impacted Workers' Participation in Social Insurance

- Behavioral culture and service style of civil servants and employees of the social insurance sector. Culture of behavior and service style of civil servants and employees of the social insurance sector have changed positively according to the criteria of participants' careers and the situation. Enjoy the best social insurance. As a result, in the first 6 months of 2016, the time to carry out administrative procedures of the social insurance industry was reduced to 48.5 hours. The social insurance industry is striving to promote electronic transactions by the end of 2016, which will help reduce the time to 45 hours - equal to the average of ASEAN countries. The results from administrative procedure reform have improved the quality of public services of the social insurance industry, thereby creating favorable conditions for businesses, contributing to improving the business environment and enhancing national competitiveness according to the goals of the Resolution. Government decision [44].

The above forces of the social insurance industry have positively influenced workers' participation in social insurance. The evidence is that the proportion of workers participating in social insurance at non-state enterprises increased from 2016 to 2018 [43]. The implementation of policies and laws on social insurance has negatively impacted the participation in social insurance of employees in non-state enterprises.

- The order and procedures for implementing social insurance policies are still cumbersome and complicated

Many non-state enterprises responded that the procedures were still cumbersome, going through many unnecessary and complicated steps: For sickness and maternity benefits, the settlement of one-time benefits for married men was possible. Having a child but the wife does not participate in Social Insurance, because Social Insurance is managed by province, it is not possible to check the male employee's wife if she participates in insurance in a unit other than the province. Or in the case of employees when their children are sick, they do not want to go to the hospital because the procedures are cumbersome and complicated, so they go to a private facility for examination. Because they do not have the right to issue leave papers to enjoy social insurance, private medical examination facilities are only granted to employees with sick children. According to regulations, the social insurance company does not accept sick children's books, so the employee's benefits have been narrowed. Employees who take sick leave for more than 14 days must wait for the Insurance agency to complete the settlement of their sick benefits before being notified of a reduction, causing difficulties for businesses.

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Non-state enterprises and workers still face many difficulties when performing medical examination with health insurance cards such as: referral process, not yet organizing medical examination.

outside office hours and on weekends, incorrect information about the name of the unit in the health insurance benefits certificate, handing over health insurance cards to businesses, revoking health insurance cards of resigned employees, limiting the scope of initial medical registration...

- Time to resolve administrative procedures of the social insurance industry

When asked about the time to handle social insurance procedures (the average number of hours per year a business needs to complete the registration and payment procedures for social insurance and health insurance), the responses of businesses showed that: 54% of businesses have The amount of time spent handling social insurance is less than 50 hours/year

– lower than the average number of hours that Vietnam Social Security claimed to have achieved in 2016: 48.5 hours/year; Of which, only 20% of businesses reach less than 20 hours/year; 34% of businesses lose from 30 to 50 hours/year. 46% of businesses have to spend more than 50 hours/year to resolve administrative procedures related to social insurance; Of which, 22% of businesses spend 51-70 hours and 24% of businesses have to spend more than 70 hours/year on social insurance.

This result shows that although the reform of administrative procedures of social insurance has been highly appreciated by businesses, bringing great advantages to businesses and employees, the actual amount of time that many businesses have to spend on administrative procedures of social insurance is still high, requiring the social insurance industry. need to put more effort into its administrative procedure reform plan.

Many businesses have problems and difficulties because the time to resolve social insurance procedures of businesses is still slow, exceeding the prescribed number of days. According to businesses, the time to handle procedures and return results according to regulations is reasonable, but in reality, the social insurance agency often pays later than the appointment letter, especially with social insurance benefits. Some businesses even believe that the actual time is always 2 to 3 times longer than the prescribed time. For example: time to complete procedures for closing social insurance books, printing and distributing health insurance cards, printing social insurance books, processing and paying social insurance benefits, procedures for applying for re-issuance of books or re-issuance of declarations:

“The time prescribed in the law for resolving insurance procedures is moderate and reasonable. However, the insurance agency did not follow this procedure correctly. The actual processing time is always twice to three times longer than the prescribed time; The time it takes to print social insurance books for new employees is a bit long. Normally, it takes 2 months for employees to have the books; The Insurance Agency often returns results later than the appointment letter (an average of 5 days); The process of the social insurance accounting department transferring money to employees' social insurance benefits is still slow, usually 1 month to 2 months after the application is approved;

Time to print health cards for new employees: it takes nearly 02 months from the date of sending appropriate documents

In-depth interview, 42-year-old male, Hanoi Social Insurance agency.

Notably, some businesses believe that returning results via post or electronic transaction software is often slower than submitting documents directly to the social insurance agency:

“If you submit your application directly to the insurance agency, the time to return the results will be more timely. Submitting documents via insurance software takes longer, sometimes lasting more than 1 week

- Guidance for workers and businesses to participate in social insurance is still limited

Non-state enterprises have not updated and promptly informed changes in procedures, records, and forms, making them difficult to understand, difficult to access, and time-consuming for businesses to repair. For example: declaration software changes interface but is not informed in advance, forms change but non-state enterprises are not notified promptly:

The information is publicly posted but is not complete, specific, or leaky, causing non-state enterprises to make mistakes and have to make many corrections.

Just stating the name of the document, there are no regulations and guidelines, the procedures are still sketchy and unclear. The page looking up information about the process of participating in employee health insurance has not been fully updated with information. Or not receiving information from the supplier or insurance agency when the declaration software changes the way the management interface is used. Information exchange from the insurance agency is still slow, processing time (eg: closing books for employees, renewing cards... must wait about 15 days, returning results by post)"

Results of in-depth interviews Female, 43 years old, Hanoi social insurance

+ Non-state enterprises do not receive specific and complete guidance when encountering problems that cause them to travel a lot, causing loss of time and costs: When enterprises encounter problems that need to be resolved, the social insurance agency does not provide guidance. specific and complete, businesses have to travel a lot, wasting time and money. When submitting an insurance application, if there is a request to add or edit information, sometimes there are still no clear instructions. How to calculate and resolve the regime has not been made public, causing

Employees and businesses do not understand why social insurance calculates the amount of benefits for that policy."

- Social insurance declaration forms still have many shortcomings

Inadequate forms make it difficult for non-state enterprises to declare and compare data: For example: maternity sickness request form, TN allowance, Declaration of labor increase or decrease. When announcing an increase in insurance contributions for new employees, the software requires entering personal information (address, place of birth, place of origin...) of the employee by code, but when printing the declaration, the information is displayed as letter. This makes it difficult for businesses and employees to declare and compare data.

Frequent changes to the form make it difficult to update the form. For example: form for enjoying health care, sickness, and maternity benefits: Form for enjoying health, sickness, and maternity benefits changes frequently and is unstable. The information for declaration of increase currently has a detailed declaration of the place where the birth certificate was issued (House number / Ward, Commune / District, District / Province, City), it is very difficult for units to get information from employees. .”

In addition, the material of the social insurance book is thin, easily torn/creased, and the ink does not leak clearly:

“The material of the social insurance book should be changed, because the social insurance book is paper with a shelf life of 6 months to 1 year but is very thin, easily torn, and the ink is blurred and blurred, so it should be replaced. Changing the material is integrated with the card....".

In-depth interview, male, 42 years old, Hanoi social insurance officer.

- Software for performing electronic transactions is not convenient and effective

Some non-state enterprises have difficulty conducting electronic transactions through software of the social insurance industry. Possible: slow transmission, errors and omissions, not updated regularly.

The process of declaring labor changes using electronic transaction documents faces many difficulties due to slow transmission lines, processing staff and follow-up processing of documents is still slow, leading to businesses submitting 15 days later and still not receiving it. appointment letter notifying the processing of the enterprise's application, the enterprise cannot submit additional application within the month to match the data on insurance. Leading to the situation: incurring unnecessary interest and penalties for businesses; In addition, if the enterprise does not make timely corrections within the month, the enterprise must redo the entire dossier the following month, resulting in many other procedures. Data declaration software (Ivan)

The latest data has not been regularly updated, the information on the software is not complete, there is no information about foreign workers, or the software has not automatically withdrawn 14 days of sick leave for workers. NVBH still has to update manually;

In-depth interview, 43-year-old female, Hanoi social insurance officer

+ Electronic software is not convenient and difficult to use:

“In the process of implementing social insurance procedures using electronic software, when making transactions, the new software is often updated regularly. When the registration increase or decrease is completed, it is not possible to confirm whether the registration increase or decrease was successful. Comparing changes after entering data into the software with the social insurance agency is still difficult and takes a lot of time .

In-depth interview, 45-year-old male, Hanoi social insurance officer

- The application notifies application results via unused email

The application to notify application results via email has not been used. Therefore, businesses must regularly update the software to monitor, check application status and download results; When encountering problems using software, social insurance support is still slow, sometimes businesses have to submit hard documents, wasting time and effort, incurring additional costs for businesses, while for businesses with With few workers, electronic transactions don't really bring much change.

The new declaration software can only be used for social insurance collection. Other functions are still not usable while the declaration software being applied (TS24) still has many inadequacies in the declaration process. The enterprise asked the social insurance agency and was told that other functions (health insurance, social insurance regime) have not been applied and the enterprise does not know when it can be applied, it still takes time to prepare paper documents and travel time. Submit applications directly between the enterprise and the social insurance agency.

In-depth interview, female, 48 years old, Hanoi social insurance officer

- Processing and returning documents

The processing and return of dossiers by post by the social insurance agency is still slow, causing difficulties for businesses in paying benefits to employees. Many businesses encounter difficulties because implementing this form depends on the post office. All transactions with the social insurance agency through the post office are only favorable when the documents have no errors, in case of mistakes or errors. It's true that mistakes must be repaired

Currently, transactions through the post office are costly and time-consuming, even exceeding deadlines, affecting the payment of benefits to workers.

Receiving and processing staff of the social insurance industry still do not provide enthusiastic and clear instructions on procedures for electronic transactions, answer questions, are rigid and inflexible; The coordination between departments of the local Social Insurance unit is not good, especially the one-stop shop staff and other departments:

One-stop officers receive and resolve administrative procedures in accordance with regulations. However, the results returned to the unit did not comply with regulations on resolution time limits. The solution is not really flexible and meets the wishes of the Enterprise."

(Reporter, 39 years old, Hanoi Social Insurance Officer) Information and propaganda work on social insurance

Information and propaganda work on social insurance plays an important role in promoting workers in non-state enterprises to participate in social insurance. According to the social intervention theory of media, the press provides information and knowledge and creates a public forum to share knowledge, skills and experiences, helping the public to expand their understanding and change. awareness and adjustment of public attitudes and social behavior [09].

At the Central level, the work of information and propaganda to disseminate the Party's policies and the State's legal policies is always paid attention and focused by the social insurance industry. Vietnam Social Security has closely coordinated with ministries, departments, branches, socio-political organizations, unions, and press agencies to sign and deploy propaganda activities over each period, such as: Regulations on coordination with the Central Propaganda Department, Central Committee of the Vietnam Fatherland Front, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Labor

- War Invalids and Society, Ministry of Information and Communications, Central Vietnam Farmers' Union, Central Vietnam Women's Union, Central Vietnam Red Cross Society, Central Ho Chi Minh Communist Youth Union Minh, Vietnam General Confederation of Labor, Vietnam Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Vietnam Cooperative Alliance; central media, radio and television agencies (People's Newspaper, Vietnam Television, Voice of Vietnam, Vietnam News Agency...).

Propaganda activities are deployed synchronously from the central to local levels in many diverse forms, suitable to each stage of industry development and each period of the country's development. Harmoniously combining traditional forms of propaganda, such as: conferences, seminars, discussions, and direct dialogue with workers and people; Propagating through publications... with modern forms of information and communication on internet applications, producing clips, videos, skits, short films, reality TV programs and game shows; Propagating, consulting, answering regimes and policies on the customer care system (call center) , automatic response system (chatbot) , electronic information portal and Vietnam Social Insurance Fanpage... are being conducted. increasingly attracting the attention of a large number of workers and people with over 100 million visits [05].

In Hanoi, the work of information and propaganda of legal policies on social insurance continues to be promoted by the social insurance industry, paying attention to both breadth and depth; Implement regularly, synchronously and consistently throughout the city, proactively dialogue and discuss with businesses and workers; Coordinate with departments, branches, branches, People's Committees of districts, towns, socio-political organizations, and unions to organize over 200 propaganda conferences, training, seminars, and dialogues with local businesses. city ​​table with 48,814 attendees; hung 2,477 banners, slogans, hoardings, and posters;

Hanoi Social Insurance has closely coordinated with the City Party Committee's Propaganda Department, Newspapers, Radio and Television agencies to publish 425 news articles about the outstanding results of the City Social Insurance; In addition, the City Social Insurance also sent 85 news articles to the website of the Party Committee of the City agencies; City Party Committee website, information portal of Vietnam Social Insurance, social insurance newspapers and magazines; Coordinated with the cultural and information departments of districts to set up separate radio hosts about social insurance at a fixed time frame. In 2018, 108,906 propaganda articles about social insurance policies were broadcast on the commune and ward radio system. , town, district radio station [05].

The social insurance industry and the Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs are the most important access channels for businesses to access information about laws, policies and administrative procedures: 65.5% of businesses have been approached through the social insurance agency; 59.4% through business consultation workshops and professional training courses organized by the social insurance agency and the Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs sector; 57.4% of businesses access information through the social insurance industry's website. In addition, agencies

Media such as newspapers and television also contribute significantly to updating new information for businesses: 30% and 15.7%, respectively (see figure 6). This result shows that the Hanoi social insurance agency has closely connected with businesses in propagating and informing about changes in social insurance policies and procedures.

Figure 4.1: Channels to access information about social insurance for businesses (%)

4.1.3. factors belonging to employees in non-state enterprises the limitation of this content in 1

4.1.3. Factors belonging to employees in non-state enterprises

The limitation of this content in the topic is that the researcher does not have a complete set of data on factors belonging to workers in non-state enterprises to use in analyzing influencing factors. To overcome the above limitations, although it is not really clear, during the analysis process, the researcher tried to use a number of theories, research works and available data to somewhat eliminate the leak. The influence of factors belonging to employees in non-state enterprises on social insurance participation.

- Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) are two theories frequently used by social scientists in analysis. factors that influence people's behavior. The theory of rational behavior (TRA) was first developed in 1967 by Fishbein, and was later revised and expanded by Ajzen and

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