The object of TV can be any student, group of students, parents if there is a need for TV.
The relationship between the TV subject and the TV object is an interactive relationship, in which the TV subject is in a position to create an impact by conveying information, analyzing and advising. The TV object in the position of the affected people receives information from the TV subject.
The end result of TV can be a cognitive transformation and can also be a major life change. However, if the information is incomplete, the subject's behavior is not reasonable, which can lead to the TV audience having useless perceptions or actions - the impact takes place in a bad and inefficient way. From the above analysis can be understood:
TVN activities for students is actually an activity to provide detailed information about a career to students. Compare and contrast each student's ability and interest with the professional needs of the society to help students make an appropriate career choice.
On the basis of the above instrumental concepts, we believe that: Management of vocational training activities for students is a process of purposeful and planned impact of the subject who manages TVET activities on the object of vocational counseling and education. students, counselors, and students in order to help students compare their individual abilities and interests and the needs of society to choose an appropriate career.
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1.3. Some basic issues about career counseling activities for students at the Center for Continuing Education - Career - Vocational Training
1.3.1. The purpose and importance of career counseling activities for students at the Center for Continuing Education - Career - Vocational Training
According to author Pham Tat Dong, one of the main purposes of career guidance (including career counseling) is to adjust the career choice intentions of generations of students to suit the development requirements of the business world. economic. Therefore, for a long time, in career guidance, educators have always asked for
Teenagers must be able to answer the question: "Is the chosen profession among the professions that society needs to develop?". In the process of industrialization and modernization, the economic structure will change towards reducing the proportion of agriculture and increasing the proportion of industry and services in the domestic income. The youth's tendency to choose a career in line with the trend of economic restructuring is a requirement of career counseling.
In addition, career trends are expressed in many aspects, so the impact of career guidance in general and career counseling in particular on changing the manifestations of career trends also shows the role of the profession. This work in adjusting the career trends of students.
Career counseling for students at Continuing Education - Career - Vocational Training Centers is important in helping students understand careers deeply and choose suitable careers. In other words, career counseling is like a way to help them perceive and orient their career choices.
TVN is the job of adjusting students' motivation to choose a career, adjusting their career interests according to the trend of social division of labor. Experiences at home and abroad show that students' spontaneous career choice is often inconsistent with the direction of production and industry development in society. Therefore, the educational impact in the career guidance process has a very special meaning. The final result to be achieved is that each student must voluntarily choose a career with a sense of putting the interests of production development above his own personal aspirations… The career process in school does not stop at the education in general vocational awareness, but must direct students into specific occupations.
According to PASavin, “ Vocational counseling performs the linking function to help students compare their interests, interests and inherent abilities with the needs of the national economy” [ citation 17, p.65] .
Based on personality research and knowledge about the needs of the national economy, TVN helps students recognize their inherent psycho-physiological characteristics and the needs of society in choosing a career. . TVN does not "rob" students of the opportunity to choose their own career, or as the author EAKlimov puts it, TVN is not considered to be a negative influence on students' activeness, self-discipline, and independence, but rather This activity helps children, especially high school students, to know how to adjust career trends to suit their own characteristics and the country's socio-economic development orientation, from which they confidently identify and career choice.
Through TVN, students are provided with useful information sources so that they can more accurately orient their careers and adjust career trends accordingly. In fact, the information affecting students can come from many other sources outside the school, such as: media (internet, television, radio, books...), family members. (especially parents) coming from the school (from homeroom teachers, subject teachers, career guidance teachers...) must give students the most understanding of the profession, have a strong influence on orientation as well as adjustment of trends. their career choices.
1.3.2. Content of career counseling for students at the Center for Continuing Education - Career - Vocational Training
The content of TVN for students at the Center for Continuing Education - Career - Vocational Training currently includes:
* Introduce students to the following topics:
- Occupational world: types of occupations, types of occupations, occupational groups available in the localities, introduction of labor characteristics of each profession, labor purposes, characteristics of labor objects, working tools, labor products,
requirements of the profession and the required qualities and competencies of the workers, cases of contraindications to the profession...etc.
- The system of vocational training schools at the central and local levels, the system of universities, colleges, professional secondary schools, and vocational schools.
- Job suitability and how to self-define one's profession according to three basic indicators: Interest in the profession; have the capacity to work with the profession; psychophysiological characteristics suitable to the nature and content characteristics of professional activities.
* Find out the aspirations, inclinations, interests, and career plans of students according to the following indicators: excitement when having contact with the profession, interest in learning and doing well in subjects related to their favorite profession.
* Measurement of psychological and physiological indicators directly or indirectly related to the chosen profession.
* Track the development steps, career suitability of students through the process of labor activities, through learning results at school.
* Give advice on choosing a career as well as ways to continue training after graduation.
1.3.3. Principles, methods and forms of career counseling for students at the Center for Continuing Education - Career - Vocational Training
188.8.131.52. Principles of career counseling for students at the Center for Continuing Education - Career - Vocational Training
* Ensuring the interests of students: In the process of teaching Vietnamese to students, teachers always consider students as the focus, especially with individual students, because there are difficulties they cannot talk about with students. everybody. Therefore, teachers need to keep their students' information confidential. Besides, each group, each individual has certain goals, but their common goal is the same, how to choose the most suitable career. Thus, in the process of career counseling, the consultant always aims at that to perform the counseling process in the best way.
* Respect and cooperation with students : This is the basic principle in communication and work. Therefore, in any situation, at any stage of communication, the consultant must respect students, their opinions and thoughts in the process of choosing a career, as well as in the process of exchanging ideas. exchange with the consultant. The counselor must understand that each student has their own reasons, circumstances and conditions when they make their own judgments and thoughts. Therefore, any opinion of the children, the consultant also needs to respect them so that the career counseling process takes place comfortably and effectively.
* Flexibility and flexibility in the consultation process: While implementing the steps and stages of the consultation process, it is not necessary that we follow a fixed time and fixed contents, but here Counseling should be flexible depending on the student's ability. In each content, if the student has achieved a high level in any content, the consultant can skip that step and move on to the next step. However, in the process of performing the steps, if it is necessary to go back to the previous step, the consultant still has to go back to perform it. That is, the consultant can go back to any step if necessary. During the counseling process, it is possible to consult the group first, the individual after or vice versa, or it can also consult both individuals and groups at the same time.
184.108.40.206. Forms and methods of career counseling for students at the Center for Continuing Education - Career - Vocational Training
a - Form of career counseling:
Subjects of TVN activities in continuing education - Vocational - Vocational education centers are high school students who have no experience in choosing a career, never worked in a career field. Therefore, vocational counseling activities must have appropriate forms of counseling. On the other hand, TVN activities require to be carried out regularly, many times and with a certain process to change or improve awareness or to have enough time and maturity in perception.
Normally, TVN activities for students at the Center for Continuing Education - Vocational Training - Vocational Training are organized in two basic forms:
- Firstly, on-site vocational counseling is carried out in the form of continuing education - Vocational - Vocational training centers. In this form, the centers can directly invite experts from universities, colleges, vocational schools, enterprises, etc. to come to the center to directly advise all students and individual learners. single birth. In addition, the Director of the Center also directed the youth union to organize activities to perform the task of career counseling for students. Coordinating between families, schools and society to provide career counseling for students.
- Second, indirect career counseling, this form is carried out through the mass media at the center such as: bulletin boards (sticking information, posters introducing professions of some universities, etc.) , colleges, professional high schools, vocational training; information on floor points, benchmarks ...), radio stations, newspapers, telephones, internet...etc.
b - Method of career counseling:
In addition to the above forms of career counseling, the methods of career counseling for students in Continuing Education - Career - Vocational Training Centers are also applied diversely, richly, and often innovated. , to suit the psychological characteristics of students and the change of areas of social life. The most commonly used career counseling methods are:
b1. Test method (multiple choice)
In career counseling, the following common tests can be used:
- Intelligence test group: Including Raven test, Wechsler test, Binet - Simon test, Salfret test (USA) to assess the intellectual development of students of all ages.
- Test group for measuring chromatic disorders: Including Ishihara test (Japan), Rabkin test (Soviet Union) or Homlmgrim's color selection method.
- The test group measures concentration, stability, volume and movement of attention. Includes test to measure attention span; test of attentional sustainability (according to Riss); test measuring the sustainability of attention (according to Buordon); test measures attentional stability during mental work (according to E.kraepelin), test measures attentional mobility (IHShultz Red and Black Numbers).
- The test group measures imagination and spatial imagination capacity.
- The group of tesr measures technical thinking (manipulative thinking, spatial thinking...).
- Movement test group, movement coordination.
- Test group to measure career interest (AE Golomstoc test 78 questions).
- The test group measures temperament and personality using the HJEysenck test or John Holland's test).
- The test group measures the types of individual capacity.
- The test group measures personality qualities.
- Test group to measure communication ability...
b2. Use tools and machines
In many countries, in consulting work, people have used sophisticated and sophisticated machines to diagnose the psychological qualities necessary for complex professions such as pilots, divers, design engineers, etc. In our country, it is possible to use simple and homemade machines for this work, such as tools for measuring hand vibration, reaction time, endurance, and flexibility. muscle toughness, reaction time... anthropometric measuring instruments (Martin scale, Lufkin scroll ruler...).
b3. Investigation method
The purpose is to reveal the aspirations, inclinations, career interests, and learning abilities of the students... Counselors often give students and parents a system of questions, record results, process, and solve problems. using statistics. This method is usually applied to a large number of subjects to be investigated.
b4. The method of conversation and exchange
This method can be organized in two forms: group discussion and individual exchange. The content of the seminar aims to provide and equip students with necessary knowledge about the world of work, introduce professions that society needs to develop, introduce the system of training schools, introduce introduce the professions that are currently in need of human resources in the locality, introduce job suitability and ways to determine job suitability...
b5. Methods of prehistory
It is a method to understand the student's family background and the students themselves, to provide more information for counselors, to contribute to diagnosing career suitability and giving appropriate advice, suitable for family circumstances and health. health and intellectual development level of students. The purpose of the prehistory is to establish a relationship between the counselor and the student.
In addition to the above methods, depending on the conditions, depending on the case, other complementary methods can be used such as; methods of visiting factories and factories, meeting artisans, skilled workers, and successful people in a particular profession.
1.4. Content of managing career counseling activities for students at the Center for Continuing Education - Career - Vocational Training
1.4.1. Building a career counseling model for students at the Center for Continuing Education - Career - Vocational Training
The TVN model is a type of educational model organized in centers to carry out career information activities to help individual students become aware of their own psycho-physiological characteristics, compared with their own. professional requirements, social requirements to achieve the goal of TVN in the centers.
Like other models, the TVN model has all the features of the model and has its own characteristics. The TVN model clearly defines how the organization of TVN activities for students is carried out in the classrooms