commercial insurance, businesses can decide not to participate in social insurance and health insurance, but choose a commercial health care insurance package for employees. Besides, the reason is the lack of information and knowledge from the programs. social security programs, poor quality of public hospitals and workers who rarely use health insurance or do not get sick .
In addition, the factor that influences employers to participate in social insurance and health insurance is the desire to bring benefits to employees (such as health, retirement, maternity...), especially financial benefits. from health insurance to improve workers' health (health insurance is the most important factor, then pension factor); factors that concern employee satisfaction. In addition, this study also found that most temporary workers do not participate in social insurance and health insurance, and many businesses use hiring temporary workers as a strategy to avoid social insurance responsibilities. required and reduce business labor costs. Here, there is also an additional factor from the workers' desire to receive more cash to meet current consumption needs, so they also choose not to participate in mandatory social insurance programs if the business creates "opportunities for they choose to participate/not participate. In addition, companies do not participate in mandatory health insurance for the reason that companies provide better health insurance packages for their employees. Other basic reasons determining the behavior of not participating in compulsory health insurance are lack of knowledge about health insurance and poor quality of care at Government hospitals. Therefore, the policy proposal for Laos from this study is to improve the quality of medical services at hospitals so that people have confidence and value the benefits of health insurance, thereby increasing participation. Compulsory health insurance for workers in the formal sector. This requires large public investment along with the Government's efforts in improving the efficiency of health insurance fund management. From the government's perspective, it can be seen that expanding the application of compulsory social insurance to the less formal or informal sector will be difficult due to the large number of small and micro enterprises, which will increase costs for the government. inspection, examination, supervision of legal compliance and increased administrative costs, costs of managing social insurance and health insurance collection, however, this study also reiterates an argument that relying on insurance Voluntarily to achieve high levels of social insurance coverage is not feasible.
This study also has the limitation of only focusing on one province and four industries, so the generalizability and universality of the findings are limited. In addition, questions about non-compliance with social insurance laws are sensitive to the respondents, so there may be certain errors in the measurement results of assessing the level of compliance.
Belinda S. Mandigma (2016) conducted the study “Determining the Coverage of Social Insurance in the Philippines,” the study analyzed the coverage level of the most common form of social security, which is social insurance or salary. public pensions in the Philippines by examining the relationships with selected key economic and non-economic variables. Pooled panel data for the period 2000-2013 were tested using Generalized Linear Models, Multivariate Least Squares, Fixed Effects & Random Effects and Generalized Methods. The results show that the insurance coverage represented by contributors from the economically active population is influenced only by a few economic variables such as economic stability, capital formation, wage growth and dollar growth. urbanization, economic development and globalization. Insurance coverage for elderly beneficiaries is also affected by the above economic factors excluding globalization, but including national administrative capacity, employment and unemployment. Furthermore, the non-economic drivers of insurance for the elderly are feminism, education, the informal sector and poverty rates. The more statistically significant determinants for the elderly confirm Rofman and Oliveri's (2012) conclusion that assessing insurance coverage in the elderly is less difficult, because instead of measuring accumulation of potential rights, the focus is on the proportion of eligible individuals currently receiving benefits .
Rebecca Holmes and Lucy Scott (2016) conducted the study "Expanding social insurance for informal workers" . Research shows: Informal workers face high levels of risk but the majority do not receive social insurance. Meanwhile, women in informal employment face specific and increased risks in the labor market and throughout the life cycle, but more women than men are excluded from insurance programs. A growing number of countries are expanding social insurance to informal workers, but, with only a few exceptions, most policies remain gender-blind. However, reform Maybe you are interested!
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Gender responsiveness can ensure increased coverage of women, including women informal workers, to address the risks they face. Including; (i) laws in the labor market; (ii) recognition of the care economy; (iii) design innovative policies in payment options and simplified administrative processes; and (iv) investing in gender-sensitive delivery capabilities .
4. Research on solutions to improve the effectiveness of social security and social insurance
Mai Ngoc Cuong (2006) researched the state-level topic on "Scientific basis for building and perfecting the social security policy system in our country in the 2006 period."
– 2015” (Code: KX.02.02/06-10) has proposed to state management agencies to select priority social security programs, implementation roadmap, conditions for building and implementing a comprehensive system. national body on social security and social security policy in our country .
World Bank (2012) study "Vietnam: developing a modern social insurance system - current challenges and options for future reform" proposed the need to reform the system to expand coverage, encourage equality, enhance financial sustainability and modernize social insurance management to ensure income security for the elderly in Vietnam is growing rapidly in the next decade [ 18].
Nguyen Thi Lan Huong (2013) has made recommendations to apply the social security floor of the international labor organization in accordance with the socio-economic conditions of our country. The social security floor focuses on two basic contents, which are: (i) implementing basic social assistance in cash or in kind to ensure minimum income and health safety for the poor and others. vulnerable subjects. This comes from the subject's own "need" to ensure life security and (ii) solutions to ensure the provision of essential services, including healthcare; clean water and sanitation; education; food; House; relief information about people and property for all people. Here we refer to the aspect of “ providing essential services .
The International Labor Organization (ILO) and the Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs (2013) have developed a report assessing "the long-term balancing ability of Vietnam's social insurance fund today, the report also provides Recommendations on directions for social insurance fund reform based on demographic and macroeconomic evidence and analysis.
Analyzing the financial situation of the social insurance fund to propose reform of retirement and survivorship policies, as a basis for amending and supplementing these policies in Vietnam's 2014 Social Insurance Law (Evaluation of fund financial forecasts). Vietnam's pension and death benefits, June 2013) .
Pham Thi Lan Phuong & Nguyen Van Song (2014) wrote the article "The current status of voluntary social insurance participation of workers in Vinh Phuc province" and also proposed some solutions to attract workers to participate. participating in voluntary social insurance in the province such as: (1) Raising awareness of the need to participate in voluntary social insurance; (2) Strongly innovate the translation work of the social insurance agency;
(3) There needs to be support policies for policy subjects .
The International Labor Organization and the Institute of Social Labor and Science (2014) also proposed a number of solutions to increase social insurance coverage such as: Promptly issue documents guiding the implementation of social insurance. The revised Social Insurance Law was approved by the 13th National Assembly at its 8th Session on November 20, 2014. Continue to improve state management of social insurance; Complete payment, follow social insurance beneficiaries, eliminate the "household registration" factor in organizing participation in paying and enjoying voluntary social insurance. Continue to improve the voluntary social insurance policy towards ensuring equality in policies and regimes between mandatory and voluntary social insurance to encourage workers in the informal sector to participate in voluntary social insurance. Strengthen propaganda and raise awareness of employees and employers about the rights and responsibilities of participating in social insurance. Drastically deploy solutions to strengthen inspection and check compliance in participating and enjoying social insurance policies. Continue researching the roadmap to increase the retirement age to reduce pressure on the social insurance fund; In the immediate future, promptly issue documents guiding the implementation of Article 187 regulating the extension of working hours for workers with high professional and technical qualifications, and at the same time, continue to study the roadmap to increase the retirement age to the following levels. other target groups. Continue to conduct further research on the impact of retirement age on the balance of the social insurance fund, the labor market and socio-economic development. Develop a roadmap to expand the coverage of social pension policy (monthly social benefit policy in cash) for the elderly (from 60 to under 80 years old).
age) do not have a stable source of income or are not entitled to pension or social insurance benefits .
Pham Thanh Tung (2017) wrote an article "Solutions to participate in voluntary social insurance in Quang Binh province" , and proposed a number of solutions to develop participants in voluntary social insurance in Quang Binh province such as: strengthening propaganda and dissemination of voluntary insurance policies; Complete and expand the voluntary social insurance collection agency system; Carry out emulation and reward work for voluntary social insurance collection agents; Promote administrative reform, especially reform of administrative procedures, application of information technology, improve service quality in implementing voluntary social insurance policies; Advise Party committees and authorities at all levels to direct and coordinate with relevant agencies, departments and branches to implement voluntary social insurance policies .
Conclusion of chapter 1
Thus, research on social security and social insurance is quite diverse and rich. These studies have been of interest to scholars in many fields from social sciences and humanities to planning policies. The system of social security concepts and models has been identified. Every country has its own views and understanding of social security as well as establishing separate social security models. In general, the purpose of social security is to create a safety network. for all members of the social community to face risks in life.
The concept of social insurance has been mentioned specifically and in detail in policy and legal documents as well as many scientific research works. However, the concept of social insurance that is widely used and agreed upon by many people is still a concept contained in the Law document. Many international organizations, policy makers and scientists have focused on research on social insurance with contents such as : social insurance fund operations; Developing a modern Vietnamese social insurance system, solutions to develop Vietnamese social insurance; innovate and develop Vietnam social insurance; the current status of voluntary social insurance participation in some localities, a number of thematic reports serving the work of developing the Law; participation in social insurance in businesses; Difficulties and barriers to participating in social insurance ...
Overview of the research situation has also collected and analyzed a number of research projects related to factors affecting social insurance participation. Although the research projects reviewed are not really close to the subject and object of the research, those influencing factors have a suggestive nature to help researchers in designing and building tools as well as helping researchers. During the process of data analysis, the PhD student completed the following contents of the thesis. Some findings from an overview of factors affecting social insurance participation such as : social insurance debt status, advantages and disadvantages of businesses and employees in participating in insurance social danger; age and income factors; employment situation without social insurance (no labor contract, workers work in a toxic environment, low and unstable salary); Incomplete awareness about insurance
workers' society; Unstable employment and low income; high social insurance premiums; The time to enjoy the regime is quite long; Procedures for participating in social insurance are still cumbersome, complicated and not flexible; lack of information; distrust; no need to participate in social insurance; Social insurance premiums are still high; Household; The social insurance policy system is not yet complete; circumvention of business owners' laws in paying social insurance for employees... Overview of the research situation also points out a number of solutions to improve the effectiveness of social insurance in Vietnam.
Although theoretical and practical research works on social security, social insurance, factors affecting participation in social insurance, solutions to develop social insurance and social security, The association is quite rich and diverse. However, there are still some research gaps that need to be filled in, such as: there are few research works on theory and theory of social security and social insurance, and research on the current status of insurance participation. Compulsory society has not been taken into account; There is a lack of research on social insurance participation among different types of beneficiaries. In particular, there is a lack of research on factors affecting social insurance participation of employees in non-state enterprises; lack of research on social insurance theory; There is a lack of research on the current situation and factors affecting participation in compulsory social insurance in non-state countries.
THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL BASIS OF THE THESIS
To reveal the theoretical and practical basis of the topic, this chapter focuses on analyzing working concepts, operationalizing concepts, presenting theories used to analyze and explain the results. research results. Besides, this chapter also presents the social security and social insurance systems in the world and in Vietnam, the process of formation and development through the stages of the country's development.
2.1. Some basic concepts
2.1.1. Concept of social security
In life, to satisfy minimum needs, people must work and earn income to support themselves and their families. During the working process, people also encounter risks that cause them to lose or reduce their income. These are times when you encounter risks such as sickness, disease, or work accidents that lead to loss or reduction of employment, etc. or when you are no longer able to work. etc. Traditional security measures such as saving Individuals or relying on the support and support of children, communities, etc. gradually become outdated and unsuitable for industrial society. Therefore, modern social security policies/measures have emerged to protect salaried workers from life's risks.
In practice, there are currently many different views on social security. Article 25 of the 1948 United Nations Charter approaches social security based on people's rights: "... Every person and household has the right to a minimum level of health and social benefits including food, clothing, medical care (including maternity), essential social services and the right to security in the event of employment events, illness, disability, widowhood, old age... or schools. Other force majeure cases …. The World Bank (WB) defines: Social protection is public measures to help individuals, households and communities cope with and control risks affecting income to reduce vulnerability. and income uncertainties . H. Beveridge, a British economist and sociologist (1879-1963), defined social security in a narrow sense as a guarantee of employment while people are still able to work and a guarantee of income while they are still able to work. People no longer have the strength to work . The international labor organization ILO defines social security in a broad sense as the protection of the commune