Nguyen Thi Lan Huong (2013) conducted research on " Developing Vietnam's social security system until 2020" . The author has generalized the theory of social security, social security in Vietnam, the development trend of social security policy in Vietnam through components: job creation support policy, social insurance policy, social support policy group. , ensuring a minimum level of basic social services .
UNDP (2015) also researched “ The social security system according to the life cycle in Vietnam” and found that “not all stages of the human life cycle are supported… the social security system is abandoned. The middle group remains. This means that the social security system focuses on the childhood and elderly stages of the life cycle and pays little attention to working-age workers .
ILO (2013) conducted the study “Innovations in extending social insurance to independent workers” . Research shows that: to have a good social security system, the importance of establishing a differentiated policy framework targeting specific assistance to independent workers .
The above studies have thoroughly analyzed social security issues in both theory and practice. The issue of social security is a very broad topic and each country has different social security systems and policies. Research has also revealed the current state of social security in Vietnam, including opportunities and challenges. The above studies are foundational studies that help researchers make basic assessments before delving into the field of social insurance - one of the components of social security.
1.2. Research on Social Insurance Maybe you are interested!
Maybe you are interested!
1.2.1. Research on social insurance theory
When researching the concept or understanding of social insurance, experts and scientists have come up with quite rich and diverse views on understanding social insurance. The concept system of " social insurance" appears from policy documents and laws to scientific research works as follows:
Currently, the most detailed, complete and specific legal document regulating social insurance is the 2014 Law on Social Insurance. In addition, there are other legal documents that also regulate and guide social insurance. Social insurance such as Decree No. 115/2015/ND-CP, Circular No. 59/2015/TT-BLDTBXH,... Law on Social Insurance in 2015
2014 1 has regulations on the concept of social insurance as follows: Social insurance is a guarantee to replace or compensate part of an employee's income when he or she reduces or loses income due to illness or pregnancy. property, labor accidents, occupational diseases, reaching the end of working age or death, on the basis of contributions to the social insurance fund.
In addition to the concept of social insurance mentioned in legal documents, currently, there are many scientific documents giving different views from different perspectives. From an economic perspective: social insurance does not directly treat workers when they are sick or have accidents or arrange new jobs for them when they lose their jobs, but only helps them have a part of their income when they lose their jobs. reduced mobility or loss of ability to work. From a legal perspective: the social insurance regime is a combination of legal provisions, promulgated by the State, stipulating forms of physical and mental assurance for employees or their relatives. workers' families when they lose or partially reduce their ability to work.
In Vietnam Encyclopedia Volume 1: "Social insurance is a replacement or partial compensation for employees' income when they lose or reduce income due to illness, maternity, work accidents and occupational diseases." , disability, unemployment, old age, and death benefits are based on a financial fund contributed by social insurance participants with the protection of the state according to the law to ensure life safety for workers. and their families, while contributing to ensuring social safety” .
Mac Tien Anh (2005) believes that social insurance is "a guarantee to replace or compensate part of income for employees when they lose or reduce income from their profession due to loss or reduction of working ability or job loss." do, through the formation and use of a financial fund with contributions from social insurance participants, to contribute to ensuring the life safety of workers and their families; At the same time, it contributes to ensuring social safety" .
International Labor Organization (ILO): "Social insurance is a risk and financial sharing technique that makes social insurance effective and becomes a reality in all countries around the world."
1.2.2. Research into social insurance practice
D Van Sinh (2005) conducted a doctoral thesis "Improving the management of social insurance funds in Vietnam" . The thesis has contributed to further leaking the scientific and practical basis
1 Law on social insurance 2014
of social insurance fund management in Vietnam; summarize models and methods of social insurance fund management of some countries around the world to draw some lessons that can be applied in social insurance fund management in Vietnam; Propose perspectives and solutions to improve social insurance fund management in Vietnam.
Pham Truong Giang (2010) completed his doctoral thesis on "Improving the social insurance collection mechanism in Vietnam" . The author has researched the social insurance collection policy mechanism in Vietnam, the decentralization of social insurance collection management, sanctions on social insurance payment and handling of violations on social insurance payment. Based on the analysis of the social insurance collection policy mechanism in Vietnam, mentioning the issue of sanctions for violations of the social insurance law being low and not enough to deter, the author has referred to a number of social insurance collection models in some countries. number of developed countries .
The World Bank (2012) study "Vietnam: developing a modern social insurance system - current challenges and options for future reform" has given urgent reasons for reform. Vietnam's social insurance system is: birth rate is decreasing and life expectancy is increasing, the population aging trend is increasing rapidly; low coverage rates in both the formal and informal economic sectors; Inequality between groups participating in compulsory and voluntary social insurance; the lack of financial sustainability of the social insurance fund; The capacity to manage and use social insurance funds is still weak .
Project "Assessing the situation of social insurance fund operations; Forecast of fund balance to 2020 and vision to 2030" conducted by Vietnam Social Insurance goes into depth analyzing the situation of social insurance revenues and expenditures, expenditure on management apparatus, and investment in social insurance funds from 1995 - 2010 to make an assessment. A general assessment of the achievements and shortcomings in the management and use of the social insurance fund, from which a forecast of the social insurance fund to 2020 and a vision to 2030 is made based on the analysis of macro-economic and social data (GDP). , inflation...), population, labor, employment, wages, management and use of social insurance funds over the years. Inheriting and continuing to develop research on financial assessment of social insurance funds .
During the process of developing the 2014 Social Insurance Law, the authorities also developed a number of thematic reports researching social insurance policies such as "Some comments on the (old age) retirement regime in the draft Law". Social Insurance”, “Reforming the multi-layered pension insurance system and the need to deploy pension insurance
supplements in Vietnam", "Foreign experience on one-time social insurance benefits" .
Duong Van Thang (2014) researched "Innovation and development of social insurance in Vietnam" reviewing the entire path of formation and development of the social insurance industry and social insurance policy from the August Revolution of 1945 to the resistance period. anti-French, anti-American, the reform period and the requirements and tasks of the social insurance industry in the period of industrialization, modernization and international integration. In general, these studies have also analyzed the shortcomings and limitations of current social insurance policies and proposed the continued improvement of a number of specific social insurance policies and regimes to build a modern social insurance system. .
Pham Thi Lan Phuong & Nguyen Van Song (2014) researched " The current status of voluntary social insurance participation of workers in Vinh Phuc province" . This study aims to understand the current status of voluntary social insurance participation of workers in Vinh Phuc province, thereby proposing some solutions to promote voluntary social insurance participation. The study conducted a survey of 200 workers in 4 districts, towns and cities of Vinh Phuc province. Survey results show that: the number of people participating in voluntary social insurance tends to increase but still accounts for a very small proportion of the total number of people participating in social insurance; The increase in participants is different when considering the following aspects: age, fee payment options, profession and area of residence .
The International Labor Organization and the Institute of Science and Social Labor (2014) conducted the study "Social insurance, enhancing social security for all people" . Research has shown the current status of social insurance coverage in the period 2009-2014 .
The International Labor Organization and General Statistics Office (2016) researched "informal labor in Vietnam" . The study also focused on assessing the status of social insurance participation of informal workers. Some main research results include: most informal workers do not have social insurance (97.9%), only 0.2% pay compulsory social insurance, the remaining 1.9% pay voluntary social insurance. In the group of informal workers, only 0.1% of facility owners and 1.2% of family workers pay compulsory social insurance, while in other employment positions this rate is almost zero.
This may be because some establishment owners are aware of paying social insurance to ensure their own rights as well as those of employees who have close relationships with the establishment owner. A notable piece of information is that there is up to 68% of informal workers work in individual production and business establishments. Only 3% of production and business households have registered for social insurance, and almost only production and business households in the formal sector participate. This contributes to explaining the reason why the proportion of informal workers in Vietnam who are paid social insurance is very low .
The Institute of Trade Union Workers (2016) conducted the project "Strengthening the rights of workers and trade union representatives" implemented by the Vietnam General Confederation of Labor in cooperation with the European Commission. This sociological survey includes 1,040 research samples, surveyed in 3 provinces and cities: Hanoi, Hai Duong and Vinh Phuc. The study described the employment situation, income, life, and legal awareness of workers; evaluate the implementation of labor laws by enterprises and the role of trade unions in protecting the rights of workers .
VCCI (2016) also conducted research "Opinions of businesses in the foreign investment (FDI) sector in Vietnam on difficulties in implementing social insurance and health insurance policies." health and unemployment insurance" . The study has fully and accurately synthesized opinions and recommendations of FDI enterprises in Vietnam on difficulties in implementing current social insurance policies; The study also outlined the proposals of FDI enterprises for implementing social insurance policies .
Le Van Long (2017) carried out the research topic "Research on solutions to continue reforming and simplifying administrative procedures in the professional activities of Hanoi Social Insurance", the author analyzed leaks status of reform and simplification of administrative procedures in the professional activities of Hanoi Social Insurance and has proposed many key solutions to improve the efficiency of reform and simplification of administrative procedures in professional activities. v Social insurance of Hanoi city.
Pham Thanh Tung (2017) wrote an article "Solutions for participating in voluntary social insurance in Quang Binh province" , the author mentioned the current situation of the number of participants.
Participate in voluntary social insurance; current status of development work of subjects participating in voluntary social insurance; and survey results of workers on awareness, needs, and desires of workers about voluntary social insurance policies in Quang Binh province, proposing solutions to develop insurance participants. Quang Binh province society .
Nguyen Quoc Doanh (2017) conducted a scientific project "Situation of participation in social insurance, health insurance, unemployment insurance for employees at non-state enterprises in Bac Kan province - Situation and solutions . The author has leaked: The current status of participation in social insurance, health insurance, and unemployment insurance for employees of non-state enterprises in Bac Kan province; Identify a number of factors related to the situation of participation in social insurance, health insurance, and unemployment insurance for employees of non-state enterprises in Bac Kan province; Develop some solutions to increase the rate of participants in social insurance, health insurance, and unemployment insurance at non-state enterprises in Bac Kan province.
General Statistics Office (2017, 2018, 2019) conducted research on social insurance participation from businesses. Research reports all point to leaks in the number of workers in state-owned enterprises, foreign-invested enterprises (FDI) and non-state enterprises. In addition, the reports also leak the rate of social insurance participation by gender, place of residence, household registration, field of operation and labor size in state-owned enterprises and enterprises with capital investment. foreign investment (FDI) and non-state enterprises. Looking at them, the data have a large sample size and are highly reliable .
The Institute of Workers and Trade Unions (2018) has a report "Overview of the situation of workers, civil servants, public employees, and labor in agencies, organizations, units, and enterprises and some forecasts" showing that that: the phenomenon of units and businesses showing signs of trying to terminate unfair labor contracts with middle-aged workers, workers with a high number of years of work, especially female workers, is increasing but still lacking. treatment measures .
Ho Phuong (2018) conducted a scientific project "Solutions for developing participants in voluntary social insurance in the informal sector in Phu Yen province. The author leaked the current status of development of participation in voluntary social insurance." In the area
unofficial in Phu Yen province and has proposed a number of solutions to develop voluntary social insurance participants in the province.
The Institute of Trade Union Workers (2019) conducted research on " Current status of labor contract termination of middle-aged workers (35-44 years old) in Vietnamese enterprises today" . The study has revealed the current situation of labor contract termination of middle-aged workers (35-44) in businesses in Vietnam; Causes, motivations, and goals of workers and businesses when terminating labor contracts with middle-aged workers .
In addition to domestic research on social insurance, there are also a number of foreign research projects on social insurance such as:
BSR (2016) overviewed social insurance in China, the study confirmed that Social Insurance in China was a major pillar of the Communist Agenda when the Party came to power in the late 1990s. 1940. Since the passage of the first law in 1951, however, China's rapid economic growth required far-reaching changes. Several protests have taken place focusing on the payment of social insurance benefits. According to the China Labor Bulletin, social unrest in China increased by 33% in 2014, with 2,590 strikes to protest the payment system under the social insurance premium. Meanwhile, the trend The decline in the private sector's contribution to the system, public mistrust of social insurance reforms and confusion about individual benefits, are causing many workers to not implement the Insurance Law. Social insurance 2011 .
OECD (2018) researched "Strengthening social insurance for Vietnam", the study pointed out some notable findings of Rand and Torm (2012) that the higher the profit and investment scale of enterprises The more access to credit, the higher the proportion of insured workers. With similar results, a recent study by Lee and Torm (2017) based on GSO enterprise census data for 2006-2011 measures the performance gains of companies when increasing insurance participation. . Companies with a higher proportion of insured employees have higher revenues and higher profits per worker .
Jeanette Yu (2019) researched "China's social insurance policy" , the study had some notable findings: the social insurance program will be implemented more strictly in China. But the Chinese government does not have a large profit margin to further reduce social insurance premiums. Furthermore, the legal minimum wage and average monthly employee salary keep increasing every year. Therefore, European companies doing business in China should not rely on government adjustments to social insurance policies to reduce labor costs, but instead look for other solutions [ 59].
Rena Eichler&Elizabeth Lewis (2019) conducted research "Building a social insurance assessment tool" . The Social Insurance Assessment Tool (SIAT) consists of three parts. First, the framework helps users think about the financial issues of social insurance in the context of health reform. According to the framework, the assessment questionnaire asks key questions for which answers are necessary to make informed decisions about social insurance. Finally, a spreadsheet-based model provides a virtual reality check, giving a country's current situation .
1.3. Research factors affecting social insurance participation
The research results of Truong Thi Phuong (2012) and Nguyen Quoc Binh (2013) have proposed a research model "on factors affecting employees' participation in voluntary social insurance" including the following factors: attitude toward participating in social insurance, family expectations, perceived social behavior, health awareness in old age, moral responsibility, behavioral control, knowledge about social insurance, perceived risk, income enter and age. These 7 factors all affect the participation in social insurance of workers, especially small traders in the informal sector. Especially age and income factors have a strong relationship with the interest. This group of workers is interested in participating in social insurance because their income is still low and the time for workers to enjoy social insurance is to have reached the end of their working age (men are 60 years old and women are 55 years old) and have time to participate. Social insurance is at least for 20 years, so middle-aged people often care more about worrying about stable income and health when they get old than young people, in other words, worrying about their health when they get old. Social security increased significantly in middle-aged and elderly groups compared to young people and young adults. These studies have also applied the theory of planned behavior quite deeply (Theory of