a. The urgency of the subject
Wetlands are present everywhere in the world, from the tropics to temperate regions, covering an area of about 8.6 million square kilometers ( 6% of the Earth's surface). Wetlands play a very important role in human life. Currently about 70% of the world's population lives in coastal estuaries and around inland freshwater bodies. In addition, wetlands are also home to a large number of plant and animal species, including many rare and precious species (Hoang Van Thang, 2006).
In Vietnam, wetlands are very diverse and cover an area of nearly 6 million hectares, accounting for about 8% of all wetlands in Asia (Le Dien Duc, 1989), of which freshwater accounts for about 10% of the area. National wetlands. However, at present, in Vietnam as well as in the world, wetlands are being reduced in area and degraded in biodiversity to a serious extent. In Vietnam, wetland areas are mainly concentrated in the Northeast and the South of the Mekong Delta. The most affected wetland areas are natural ponds (leveled or narrowed) and coastal wetlands (typically mangroves). Ninh Binh is also one of the localities with typical wetland areas of the North such as Van Long Wetland Nature Reserve (the largest inland wetland area in the North) and Kim Son mangrove forest (belonging to the Biosphere Reserve). Red River Delta). Maybe you are interested!
Maybe you are interested!
Thung Nham Bird Park eco-tourism site in Hai Nham village, Ninh Hai commune, Hoa Lu district, Ninh Binh province was established in 2005 by Doanh Sinh Tourist Service and Trading Joint Stock Company directly managed and invested by the owner. total area 334.2 ha. Thung Nham Bird Park eco-tourism operates with many types and the highlight is the inner core pool where there is a wetland area with an area of about 3 hectares of water surface, where thousands of water birds live. This is a typical tourist destination of Ninh Binh with a type of tourism to observe the life of water birds.
Previously, in the cultivated fields in Ninh Binh province, there were often many species of birds (Stork, Cauldron, Gray heron, Tu howling, Chien Chien, Crow, etc.) to feed. But in recent years, almost no birds have come to the fields to feed. This decline is partly due to a long period of hunting by humans, followed by a decline in food sources and habitat.
be narrowed. In that context, the formation and development of Thung Nham Bird Park ecotourism as a safe home for birds to live and nest is something worthy of recognition and encouragement for development as well as needs to be encouraged. expanded to other regions.
With the above conditions, it is necessary to study and conserve wetland habitats in order to conserve water birds and at the same time serve the development of ecotourism at Thung Nham Bird Park ecotourism site. The conduct of wetland conservation research to serve the development of ecotourism is a new direction, which not only harmoniously solves tourism problems but also contributes to the conservation of bird species in the wetland area of the valley. At the same time, it contributes to improving the lives of people in the buffer zone of Thung Nham Bird Park ecotourism and reducing the pressure on people's livelihoods on the ecosystem of Thung Nham. This is also a wise use of wetlands.
Stemming from the above issues, conducting a research on the topic : "Research on conservation of wetland ecosystems in Thung Nham, Ninh Hai commune, Hoa Lu district, Ninh Binh province to serve the development of eco-tourism for the purpose of eco-tourism development in Ninh Binh province." eco" is necessary to meet the requirements of environmental protection while contributing to the promotion of ecotourism development.
b. Objectives of the study
+ Common goal
Assessing the current status of Thung Nham bird garden ecosystem in general and Thung Nham wetland ecosystem in particular, clarifying the relationships among stakeholders in Thung Nham area in the use of Thung Nham's resources.
- Assess the current status of biodiversity in general and in the wetland ecosystem in particular of Thung Nham Bird Park ecotourism;
- Solutions to conserve biodiversity and waterfowl populations in Thung Nham Bird Park ecotourism park;
- Proposing some solutions to develop ecotourism in Thung Nham.
c. Research question
- What is the current status of wetland ecosystem conservation in Thung Nham?
- Why is it necessary to study the conservation of Thung Nham Wetland Ecosystem in general and waterfowl populations in particular when there is ecotourism in Thung Nham Bird Park?
- How does tourism in Thung Nham Bird Park ecotourism park work?
- What are the orientations and solutions for ecotourism development in Thung Nham Bird Park Ecotourism Park in the period 2015-2020?
d. Subjects, scope of research
The object of the research is Wetland, wetland conservation, ecotourism, ecotourism development.
- About content:
The topic focuses on the conservation of wetland ecosystems to serve the development of eco-tourism, solutions to preserve and develop wetland ecosystems, including water birds in the area. Thung Nham wetland.
Research project on conservation of wetland ecosystems in the wetland area of Thung Nham Bird Park Ecotourism Park where water birds live.
- About time:
The research period of the project was carried out at Thung Nham Ecotourism Park in the period from April to September 2015.
e. Scientific and practical significance of the topic
Research topic "Research on conservation of wetland ecosystems in Thung Nham, Ninh Hai commune, Hoa Lu district, Ninh Binh province to serve ecotourism development" is expected to bring some scientific significance. desired learning and practice as follows:
- The topic is to support biodiversity conservation and eco-tourism development at Thung Nham Bird Park Ecotourism Park, Ninh Hai Commune, Hoa Lu District, Ninh Binh Province.
- Enhance the value and role of biodiversity for the community in Hai Nham village.
f. Structure of the thesis:
The thesis is organized into 7 parts, specifically as follows:
- Chapter I. Research overview
- Chapter II. Place, time and method of study
- Chapter III. Research results
CHAPTER I . STUDY OVERVIEW
1.1. Theoretical foundations of wetlands and ecotourism
1.1.1. The concept of wetlands.
Wetlands are: “Areas of marsh, peatland or bodies of water, whether natural or artificial, permanent or temporary, standing or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt water, including bodies of water. Coastal areas with a depth of not more than 6 m at low tide are all wetlands” (Ramsar Convention, 1971).
Wetlands are defined by three basic elements: water, soil, and vegetation. The hydrological regime is a decisive natural factor and plays an important role in determining wetlands.
In general, there are five main types of wetlands:
- Sea areas (coastal wetlands including coastal lagoons, rocky shores and coral reefs);
- Estuary areas (including deltas, wetlands with high tide and water marshes);
- Lake area;
- River area;
- Swamp area.
Besides, there are man-made wetlands such as fish and shrimp ponds, livestock ponds, irrigated agricultural land, salt lakes, water reservoirs, sand and gravel pits, sewage treatment sites and canals. drain.
1.1.2. Ecotourism concept
The relatively complete definition of ecotourism was first given by Hector Ceballos-Lascurain in 1987: “Ecotourism is tourism to natural areas that are still less modified, with special purposes: Research, reference, with a sense of appreciation for the wild world and discovered cultural values”.
According to the American Ecotourism Association, 1998: “Ecotourism is purposeful tourism to natural areas, understanding the cultural history and natural history of the environment, without altering the state of the ecosystem. , and at the same time we have the opportunity to develop the economy, protect natural resources and financially benefit the local community.”
In Vietnam, according to the 2005 Tourism Law, ecotourism is defined as follows: “Eco-tourism is a form of tourism based on nature, associated with local cultural identity.
with the participation of the community for sustainable development” (Law on Tourism, 2005).
Currently, ecotourism is playing an important role in many projects of nature conservation and landscape development. Ecotourism is the best way to help the whole local community.
1.1.3. Some other concepts:
+ Smart use of wetlands
Smart use of wetlands is defined as maintaining the ecological character of wetlands through implementing an ecosystem approach within the framework of sustainable development. The focus of wise use is therefore on the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands and their resources for the benefit of mankind (Wise use concept of Rammar Convention, 1971).
Conservation is the human management and use of the biosphere to obtain sustainable profits for the present generation while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations (IUCN). , 1991).
Biodiversity is the richness of genes, species and ecosystems in nature (Law on Biodiversity, 2008).
+ Conservation of Biodiversity
Biodiversity conservation is the protection of the richness of important, specific or representative natural ecosystems; protect the regular or seasonal natural habitats of wild species, environmental landscapes, and the unique beauty of nature; raising, planting and taking care of species on the list of endangered precious and rare species prioritized for protection; storage and long-term preservation of genetic specimens (Biodiversity Law, 2008).
A community is a large group of people, with common signs and social characteristics in terms of class composition, occupation, place of birth and residence. There are also social communities that include a family line, an ethnic group, and an ethnic group (Vietnam Encyclopedia Volume I - Hanoi 1995).
Ecosystem is a community of organisms and abiotic factors of a certain geographical area, which interact and exchange materials with each other (Law on Biodiversity, 2008).
+ Access to the ecosystem
The ecosystem approach is a strategy for integrated management of land, water and living resources in order to promote conservation and equitable use (IUCN, 1971).
1.2. Current status of wetlands and ecotourism in the world and in Vietnam
1.2.1. Status of wetlands
Wetlands are important ecosystems on Earth. This ecosystem since the Carboniferous period is a swampy environment, has produced many fossil fuels that are currently used by humans. Wetlands are very important, as resources of high economic value, as carbon sinks, where genes are preserved and for the transformation of chemical and biological materials. Wetlands are also described as the “kidneys of habitats” because they carry out hydrological and chemical cycles, which are downstream receivers of wastes of natural and anthropogenic origin. They clean polluted water, prevent flooding, protect coastlines and recharge aquifers. At the same time, wetlands are home to many wildlife.
a. In the world
The Ramsar Convention is an international convention for the conservation and rational and appropriate use of wetlands, with the aim of preventing increasing encroachment into wetlands and the their loss now and in the future, recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their recreational, scientific, cultural and economic values.
The official title of the convention is The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat. This Convention was created and ratified by the participating States at the meeting
in the city of Ramsar, Iran on February 2, 1971 and entered into force on December 21, 1975.
According to the Ramsar Convention (Article 1.1), wetlands are defined as follows: “Areas of marsh, peatland or water, natural or artificial, with permanent or temporary water, standing or flowing water , fresh, brackish or salt water, including coastal waters with a depth of not more than 6 meters at low tide, are wetlands.
From 18 original signatories in 1971, increased from 119 in 2000; By 2007, 153 countries and territories had joined the convention. As of May 2012, a total of 160 countries and territories have joined the Ramsar Convention, including 2006 zones, with a total area of 192,822,023 hectares.
Every year on February 2, the Contracting States of the Convention organizes activities to celebrate Wetlands Day in various ways to raise awareness of the values and benefits of wetlands.
Vietnam signed the Ramsar Convention in 1989, becoming the 50th member and the first country in Southeast Asia to join the Convention.
Regarding the classification of wetlands, there are several classifications in the world as follows:
* Classification of wetlands according to the Ramsar convention (including 22 types):
- Shallow seas and straits (less than 6m deep at low tide);
- River mouths and deltas;
- Small offshore islands;
- The rocky coast;
- Beach (sand beach, gravel);
- Mud and sandy beaches in intertidal zones;
- Mangrove swamps, mangrove forests;
- Coastal saltwater or brackish lagoons;
- Salt fields (artificial);
- Ponds of shrimp and fish;
- Slow flows (downstream);
- Fast currents (upstream);
- Lakes created by dead rivers and riparian swamps;
- Freshwater lakes and lakeside marshes;