Physical Ability of Middle School Students

Table 1.1. Physical capacity of middle school students

Teaching capacity

physical exercise

Secondary level

Health care

- Develop personal hygiene habits and hygiene in sports training.

- Have basic knowledge and awareness of implementing nutrition in exercise and daily life to protect and enhance health.

- Actively participate in collective activities in a self-paced environment

course to exercise health.

Basic movement

- Understand the important role of basic movement skills in developing physical qualities.

- Master the basic motor skills learned in the subject program.

- Forming exercise habits to develop qualities


Sports activities

- Understand the role and meaning of sports for the body and life.

- Choose and regularly practice appropriate sports content to improve health and develop physical strength.

- Participate responsibly and get along with the group in the group

exercise and other activities in life.

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Physical Ability of Middle School Students

[Universal program of physical education (Issued together with Circular No. 32/2018/TT-BGDDT dated December 26, 2018 of the Minister of Education and Training)]

1.3.3. The content of physical education activities follows the competency approach

Secondary school physical education activities include two basic forms: curricular physical education and extracurricular physical education activities. Therefore, secondary school physical education has the following basic contents:

Organize intracurricular physical education classes according to the prescribed program of the Ministry of Education and Training.

Organize training and check physical training standards according to age group once a year.

Organize physical training activities during curricular and extracurricular hours to practice basic movement skills and develop physical qualities.

Select and regularly practice appropriate sports content to improve health, develop physical strength for students, and foster sports talents for students.

Based on the actual conditions of the locality and school, the organization allows students to choose one of the sports content appropriate to their personal characteristics and age: Athletics; Exercise; Swim; Football; Volleyball; Basketball; Badminton; Shuttlecock kicking; Ping pong; Vor; Sports dance; Aerobics; traditional local sports;...

Through physical education activities in schools, students are oriented towards sports, favorite fields or choosing their favorite sports and types of sports to practice and protect. physical health for the younger generation.

Through participating in various types of physical training and sports activities, positive attitudes towards sports activities and physical education activities are formed in learners. Learners have the skills and behaviors to seriously practice and protect their health.

According to the regulations of the General Education program approved by the Ministry of Education in April 2017, Physical Education became a mandatory subject, accordingly, Physical Education is designed into modules. Thus, determining the content of physical education for students according to TCNL is very important and necessary, and is the basis for schools to select, design, build and develop school programs.

1.3.4. Methods and forms of physical education according to the capacity approach for students

- Physical education methods based on capacity approach for students:

+ Language method: This is the method of using different types of language to direct students in the process of teaching physical education and sports to achieve the tasks and requirements in this activity. That method helps students identify learning tasks; determine the correct learning attitude; evoke positive thinking; quickly understand and master teaching content (knowledge, skills, techniques, physical strength); Fostering self-analysis and problem-solving abilities.

+ Question and answer method : That is, raising problems and questions for students to think about and answer for themselves first, then the teacher explains, making students pay more attention, actively seek the correct answer and use language for expression. Even the student's answer and the teacher's explanation are also a comparison, which can help the correctness to be consolidated (strengthened), mistakes to be corrected, and shortcomings to be supplemented. It is also important to pay attention to the necessity and opportunity of Q&A. If you ask haphazardly, without distinguishing between the two, it will no longer be attractive to students.

+ Voice commands and directives : The teacher uses concise language in the form of commands to direct students to practice. Using voice commands and instructions must be clear, strong, timely, accurate, serious and consistent so that students feel serious and obliged to do what they do.

+ Modeling movements: The teacher (or designated student) makes their own movements to use as a model for other students to learn and practice. Thereby helping students understand the image, structure, technique, and method of completion, in order to build movement symbols for students. Model movements must be beautiful, natural, and rhythmic; so as to arouse students' interest in imitating learning.

+ Complete teaching method : It is the method of immediately learning the entire movement from beginning to end. Its advantage is that it is convenient for students to grasp

complete movement, without breaking the structure or internal connection between parts of the movement. However, it is impossible to learn difficult and complex movements quickly, so these methods are only used when teaching movements that are relatively simple or relatively complex, but if divided, it will break the movement structure. work.

+ Methods to prevent correcting incorrect movements: In teaching physical education and sports, making mistakes while learning movements is a normal phenomenon. Teachers need to see correctly so that the room can be corrected properly. In teaching physical education and sports, preventing and correcting errors in movements is not only to grasp knowledge and movement techniques but also to create conditions for good physical training and prevent injuries.

If you let a wrong movement form and shape your motivation before correcting it, it will take more time and effort than learning a new equivalent movement. Therefore, errors must be promptly prevented and corrected.

+ Practice method : It is a method of physical movement combined with repetitive thinking activities to complete specific sports teaching tasks. In teaching physical education and sports, if you want to grasp the movements, train the body, improve physical strength, foster qualities and psychology... all must be through doing the movements many times and thinking activities to be real. present. Therefore, this type of method is very important in carrying out the tasks of teaching physical education and sports.

+ Game and competition training methods: In the game training method (referred to as the game method), students practice using the game method. It has a certain plot and ideology, and is competitive and joyful, so it is easy to attract, making the practitioner self-aware, positive, and proactive in practicing; enhance sympathy, solidarity, support between people on the same side and tough, even tense, attractive competition between players. That competitive activity usually takes a relatively large amount of energy (amount of exercise). This method easily promotes the positivity of learning

born; develop both physical and mental strength and the ability to apply knowledge and skills (especially basic motor skills); fostering collective spirit, courage, determination and the will to strive.

- Form of organization of physical education based on capacity approach:

Any form and educational activity organized within the school has the meaning of educating students or about scientific/social knowledge; or a student's personal experience with a certain type of difficult activity that requires the learner to make efforts to mature, such as social, organizational skills, etc. During that process, activities are designed based on the educational goals to be achieved, the needs and interests of the children. This process includes training and physical education activities for children such as: perseverance, some basic movement qualities such as agility, agility, quick reflexes, etc. And so, some of the following forms are often organized within schools to have the effect of physical education for high school students: Organizing labor activities; Collective activities; Cultural, artistic and sports activities.

+ Regular class time: Is the most basic form of physical education conducted in the school's learning plan. For basic physical and sports training for students, there must first be appropriate content to develop students' physical qualities and movement coordination. At the same time, it helps children have a certain level of ability to acquire sports movement techniques.

Therefore, the main physical education course hours are administrative, legal, and regulatory for students and teachers. That is, program hours have prescribed time and quality assessment standards according to regulations of the Ministry of Education and Training.

+ Extracurricular study time - self-exercise and extracurricular sports: Is the exercise process of a group of students who have needs and interests during their leisure time with the purpose of developing their physical capacity comprehensively. , copper

while improving student athletic performance. Extracurricular lessons are intended to consolidate and perfect the main course lessons and are conducted during students' self-study hours under the guidance of sports teachers or sports instructors.

In addition, there are mass sports activities outside of school hours including: Practice in clubs, representative teams of each sport, daily anti-fatigue hygiene exercises, as well as free time. student practice, self-training movement to improve physical fitness.

+ Folk dance : This type of dance relies on beautiful and relatively popular movements to express beautiful, joyful emotions and physical movements. Folk dance does not have difficult movements or high artistic requirements, but mainly aims to entertain and exercise the body. Therefore, folk dance is considered a very good, easy to perform, inexpensive means to enrich physical training and sports activities, promote exchanges, expand and enhance emotions in the community.

+ Group dance: This type is popular with most students. The dance movements here are often simple, consistent, combined with singing and music; Many people can participate at the same time (sometimes singing and dancing). Thereby, we not only train our bodies, improve our cultural and aesthetic levels, but also expand exchanges and solidarity and friendship between people.

+ Competitive sports: as an important and attractive means of physical training and sports, it is widely developed not only in top sports competitions, but also brought into schools at all levels, in fitness and recreational facilities.

+ Personal training sessions: Personal sports training sessions are often organized in the form of morning exercise, hygiene exercise and daily walks, self-practice sessions following general training trends and training sport. It usually includes walking, running and some general developmental exercises performed for 8 -10 minutes. Self-exercise sessions must have the same structure as main class hours

lock up. It should be emphasized that individual self-practice is only effective when the practitioner has some necessary knowledge about theory and general methods of physical education; First of all, about regular classes.

+ Voluntary group training sessions: Typical voluntary group training sessions include: games, competitions. Organizers and leaders of these types of training sessions are elected or appointed by group members. The most popular form of voluntary group exercise is exercise games. According to exercise trends, games can be divided into: learning - training games, health games, entertainment games, Play competitions such as soccer matches between groups of teenagers in the same locality. To compete well, students often organize their own practice sessions.

+ Group-organized practice sessions : Practice sessions are under the control of the teacher. Group training is often competitions and health improvement sessions during sports festivals.

1.3.5. Evaluating physical education results according to the competency approach

Assessing learning outcomes based on a competency approach needs to focus on the ability to creatively apply knowledge in different application situations. In other words, competency-based assessment is assessing knowledge, skills and attitudes in meaningful contexts. Assessing students' learning outcomes in subjects and educational activities according to the process or at each stage of learning is the main measure to determine the level of implementation of teaching goals in terms of knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities, and play an important role in improving student learning outcomes.

To prove that students have a certain level of competence, opportunities must be created for students to solve problems in practical situations. At that time, students must not only apply the knowledge and skills they have learned at school, but also use their own experiences gained from experiences outside of school (family, community and society). to solve the problem

topic of practice. Thus, through completing a task in a real context, one can simultaneously evaluate both the cognitive ability, performance skills, and values ​​and emotions of the learner. On the other hand, assessment of capacity does not have to completely rely on the educational program of each subject such as assessment of knowledge and skills, because capacity is the synthesis and crystallization of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and emotions. , values, ethical standards,... are formed from many different subjects, fields of study, and from the natural social development of a person.

The evaluation of physical education results must be based on the goals and requirements to be met in the physical education program, ensuring comprehensiveness, objectivity, and differentiation.

Evaluating physical education results must combine regular and periodic assessment, combining teacher assessment and student self-assessment to promptly adjust teaching and learning activities.

The evaluation of physical education results needs to promote and support students to develop general qualities and abilities, professional competencies, focusing on the ability to apply knowledge in solving students' motor activities tasks. Create excitement and encourage students' exercise spirit, thereby encouraging them to participate in sports activities inside and outside of school.

Use qualitative assessment: Learning outcomes are described by comments or expressed by rating levels. Students can use this form for self-assessment after finishing each content, each topic, or teachers can use it for regular (informal) assessment.

Use quantitative assessment: Learning outcomes are expressed as scores on a 10-point scale. Teachers use this form of assessment for formal and periodic assessments. Quantitative assessment is used mainly in secondary schools.

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