LOCATION, TIME, METHODOLOGY AND RESEARCH METHODS
2.1. Research location
2.1.1. Ha Long City
22.214.171.124. Natural condition
a. Geographical location
Ha Long City stretches from 20 0 55' to 21 0 05' north latitude, 106 0 50' to 107 0 30' east longitude.
The North - Northwest borders Hoanh Bo district.
The south connects to the sea through Ha Long Bay and Hai Phong city. The East - Northeast borders Cam Pha city.
The West - Southwest borders Yen Hung district.
Ha Long City is in the center of the Province, has a land area of 27,195.03 hectares, has National Highway 18A running through the length of the City, has a seaport, has a 50km long coastline, and has Ha Long Bay twice. recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with an area of 434km2 .
Ha Long City has a diverse and complex terrain, one of the oldest areas in Vietnam, including hills, valleys, coastal areas and islands.
- Wind: Wind speed in different places is very different. Offshore islands have very high wind speeds, the annual average is 5 m/s, the wind is rarely calm (≤3%), many times the wind speed reaches over 40 m/s. Winter is from October of the previous year to March of the following year, influenced by the northeast monsoon. Summer is from May to August, mainly south and southeast winds blowing from the sea.
- Temperature : Average annual temperature is over 20 o C - 25 o C.
- Rain - humidity: Ha Long is one of the rainy localities in the North with an average rainfall of 1800-2000mm/year, but the distribution according to territorial space is very different. The average annual rainfall in the area ranges from 2000 mm to 2400 mm. Months with lots of rain are from May to September.
Due to favorable conditions of climate and topography, the flora of Quang Ninh province is quite rich, with components from many different migration flows such as natural forest vegetation, artificial vegetation, landscapes and diversity. biological form.
e. Natural resources
Quang Ninh in general and Ha Long in particular have extremely rich natural resources. Outstanding mineral resources are coal and limestone. Not only that, Ha Long also has extremely famous tourism and humanistic resources, which is the world natural heritage Ha Long Bay.
126.96.36.199. Socioeconomic and environmental conditions
a. Social and economic conditions
Ha Long is a tip of the northern industrial triangle of Hanoi - Hai Phong - Quang Ninh. Coal mining has been established for a long time and has become a strength of the city with many large coal mines: Ha Tu, Ha Lam, Tan Lap, Nui Beo and dozens of small mines, each year exploiting over 10 million tons. coal of all kinds. Associated with coal mines are screening plants, mechanical transport enterprises and ports.
Ha Long strongly develops shipbuilding industry, construction material production, and seafood food processing.
Ha Long City is a major trading center. Main export goods are coal and seafood, imported goods are petroleum, mining machinery, iron and steel, and means of transport. Ha Long is the focal point for trading industrial goods, food, and foodstuffs for production and consumption in mining industrial areas and tourist areas.
Ha Long is a tourist city; The largest tourist center in the North and the second largest number of tourists after Ho Chi Minh City.
b. Environmental conditions
Ha Long City has Ha Long Bay as a World Natural Wonder, preserving the value of the wonder must be given top priority. The bay environment from the belt, buffer zone to the outcrop must be strictly protected. Because Ha Long is a city that develops tourism and the coal mining industry, environmental issues are given great attention.
Currently, the city has a clear plan: Bai Chay area, tourism development, with investment in physical infrastructure to serve tourism purposes, and coal production area concentrated in the north. Hon Gai area.
Tourism development is accompanied by a large amount of waste and wastewater generated. The issue of waste has been focused on and thoroughly collected by businesses, without affecting the urban landscape. In addition, the issue of collecting household solid waste from residential areas is also implemented by wards and communes. Domestic wastewater from restaurants and hotels has been connected to the centralized wastewater treatment system in Cai Dam.
In Ha Long, the "smoke industry" goes hand in hand with the "smokeless industry". Previously, there was always environmental pollution in Ha Long city
People and authorities are concerned because coal companies are increasing their mining capacity, most mine wastewater and waste rock are acidic and have high turbidity.
are all dumped directly into the bay without going through any treatment process. At coal ports , the situation of transporting and loading coal in the "absolute protection zone" still exists. Many large tonnage ships coming to receive coal cannot enter the port and have to use transshipment methods , so a large amount of coal is scattered into Ha Long Bay. However, due to the direction of the departments of Quang Ninh province and Ha Long city, currently, lip
City schools have been significantly improved. Open-cast coal mining has been minimized to limit environmental pollution. Vinacomin has invested in the construction of centralized mine wastewater treatment systems and projects. Coal mining no longer stretches across the city but focuses on a few areas such as Ha Lam, Ha Trung, and Ha Tu.
2.1.2. Cam Pha City
188.8.131.52. Natural condition
Cam Pha city is located about 200 km northeast of Hanoi capital, 30 km from Ha Long city, with geographical coordinates from 20 o 58'10 - 21 o 12' north latitude, 107 o 10' - 107 o 23'50 east longitude.
Cam Pha city has a natural area of 486.45 km², the terrain is mainly mountainous. Mountains and hills account for 55.4% of the area, midlands 16.29%, plains 15.01% and coastal areas 13.3%. Out at sea are hundreds of small islands, most of which are limestone islands. The average annual temperature is about 23 o C, average humidity is 84.6%, annual rainfall is 2,307 mm, and there is often fog in winter.
184.108.40.206. Socioeconomic and environmental conditions
Cam Pha city has a lot of potential for economic development such as coal mining and processing industry, construction materials production, mechanical engineering, electrical equipment manufacturing, mining machinery, heavy trucks, shipbuilding industry. , trade services, tourism... In 2011, the economic growth rate was over 14%, the city's budget revenue was 751 billion VND, the average income per capita reached 2,300 USD.
Cam Pha's main mineral reserves are coal, with a total potential estimated at over 3 billion tons out of a total of 8.4 billion tons of coal reserves in the entire Quang Ninh province. Cam Pha has a railway system used to transport coal running along the city, carrying coal to Cua Ong Coal Plant, large coal mines such as Coc Sau, Deo Nai, Cao Son, Mong Duong, Khe Cham, Duong Huy, Thong Nhat. . In addition, other minerals such as antimony, limestone, and mineral water are all rare resources. The limestone mountains in Cam Pha are a rich source of raw materials for the development of cement, thermal power and construction materials industries, with Cam Pha Cement Factory. Cam Pha city has a seafood exploitation industry with more than 50 km of coastline, but mainly inshore fishing with low output.
Cam Pha City is one of the country's major coal mining centers, so the amount of soil, rock, wastewater and dust released into the environment every year is huge. In order to overcome the negative impacts caused by coal mining activities in recent times
The coal industry has continuously invested and innovated technology for environmental protection in this area. To promote dust reduction, up to this point, Vinacomin has also completed the pilot construction of 1 automatic car washing station at Coc Sau Coal Joint Stock Company and 2 car washing stations at the Company. Cua Ong coal collection. Based on the existing stations, we will learn from experience to further invest in car washing stations on the routes from mines and coal ports. The goal is that after 2020, all vehicles will be washed before entering urban areas. In recent years, land subsidence has occurred in some localities in the city, creating large holes that people often call "sinkholes". Other environmental problems arising from coal mining activities such as dust, impact on underground water sources, surface water, erosion,
2.2. Research time
Research period: from February to May 2013
2.3. Research subjects
Research object: are sources of dust emissions causing air pollution: open-cast mining (loading, shoveling, blasting...), transporting waste rock and soil, products, dumping waste at landfills, loading and unloading coal at ports, production stages at screening houses...
Sources of mine wastewater: water from mines, from screening, water from pits, rainwater overflowing through the mining site...
Characteristics of waste sources and waste. Measures to reduce waste sources.
- System analysis: leaks about the natural, economic, and social systems of Ha Long City and Cam Pha City.
- Pressure: coal mining and production activities in Ha Long City and Cam Pha City pollute land, water, air, and ecosystems, affecting human life.
- Current status of the impact of coal production in the key areas of Ha Long and Cam Pha cities of Quang Ninh province on the environment in the region.
- Impact of dust and wastewater during coal production on the environment and human life.
- Respond and use economic tools, laws, and new production technologies to propose measures to reduce environmental pollution caused by coal production activities.
2.5. Research Methods
2.5.1. Methods of investigation and field survey:
- Collect existing data on the current environmental status of Ha Long City and Cam Pha City.
- Design and investigate using questionnaires, synthesize existing information and data on sources of environmental pollution.
2.5.2. Methods of collecting documents
- Collect documents at the Quang Ninh Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Environmental Crime Prevention Police Department - Quang Ninh Provincial Police.
- Documents collected for the report:
+ EIA of coal mines in key areas: Nui Beo mine, Cao Son mine, Mo Coc Sau mine.
+ Periodic environmental monitoring reports of coal mines in the area.
+ Annual environmental assessment and summary reports of the Quang Ninh Department of Natural Resources and Environment.
2.5.3. Rapid assessment method with people's participation
Quick assessment of air environment quality and coal transport volume at the coal transport route of Nam Cau Trang coal port located in zone 6, Hong Ha ward, Ha Long city.
2.5.4.Environmental monitoring methods
Equipment and methods for monitoring water environment
Quick measurement on site
according to QCVN05:2009/BTNMT
Rapid water quality meter:
WATERPROOF pH Testr 10
Quick measurement on site
according to QCVN05:2009/BTNMT
Rapid water quality meter:
WATERPROOF pH Testr 10
PP volume according to QCVN08:2008/BTNMT, QCVN09:2008/BTNMT,
Drying oven Binder, ED53 (Germany) Analytical balance 10 -4
Determine the amount of oxygen consumed to oxidize all organic compounds using the method
Palintest burner (UK)
TITRONIC96 automatic titration device (Germany)
Measure oxygen consumption after 5 days.
Thermostat cabinet BOD TS 606 – G2 WTW
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2.5.5. Comparative method
To increase the number of households _
Environment , Thesis on the Use of Standards
Environmental techniques below for comparison and evaluation:
+ TCVN 5949:1998: Acoustics, noise in public and residential areas.
+ QCVN 05:2009/BTNMT: Surrounding QC technical regulations .
eel quality assessment
g no when
+ QCVN 06:2009/BTNMT: National technical standards on quality
air - Maximum allowable concentration of a surrounding.
number of toxic substances
two in the air while pulsing
+ QCVN 08:2008/BTNMT: National technical standard on water quality .
+ QCVN 10:2008/BTNMT: National technical regulation on eel quality
coastal beach. ̀
g water c
+ QCVN 40:2011/BTNMT: National technical regulation on industrial wastewater
+ Circular No. 07/2007/TT-BTNMT dated July 3, 2007 of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment guiding the classification and decision on the list of facilities causing environmental pollution that need to be handled.