Participation in social insurance of employees in non-state enterprises in Hanoi - 5

Planned Behavior - TPB) to explain the variables (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control) that affect the level of interest in participating in voluntary social insurance [51].

Dang Nguyen Anh (2012) researched "social security in Vietnam: issues and some policy recommendations" and identified that jobs without social insurance and without labor contracts are common. changes in the informal economic sector. Workers have to work in poor conditions, toxic environments, low wages and instability. Meanwhile, the fact that employers pay little attention to workers' welfare makes social security issues in this area even more complicated. Therefore, the author believes that the factors affecting social insurance participation are due to the specific characteristics of the employment situation without social insurance, without a labor contract, and employees working in a work environment. toxic environment, low salary and instability [01].

Tran Nguyet Minh Thu (2014) also emphasized that workers in some economic establishments are required to pay compulsory social insurance, but small business owners often find ways to avoid it. The workers themselves, because they need a job and are not fully aware of social insurance, do not ask for anything. When encountering a risk, accident or incident, the settlement is usually by private agreement, without legal intervention or protection, and the employee is the one who suffers the most [35].

In addition, there are also a number of other studies on the topic of workers participating in voluntary social insurance in the informal sector in provinces such as Phu Yen, Nha Trang, Vinh Phuc... which also initially analyzed and evaluated the issue. The need to participate in voluntary social insurance of employees from different perspectives: age, gender, education, occupation, income and points out the reasons for not participating in voluntary social insurance due to a number of reasons such as : unstable employment and low income; high social insurance premiums; The time to enjoy the regime is quite long; Procedures for participating in social insurance are still cumbersome, complicated and inflexible; lack of information; distrust; no need to participate in social insurance... The main reason why a large number of workers have not participated in voluntary social insurance is unstable employment and low income (accounting for 82%) [29].

Bui Sy Loi (2016) conducted a ministerial-level scientific project on "Research on solutions to implement mandatory social insurance for employees working under labor contracts with a term of 1 month or less." 3 months according to the provisions of the Social Insurance Law 2014" . The topic has analyzed a number of factors affecting this group of workers' unwillingness to participate in social insurance, such as: the social insurance payment rate is still high, accounting for 44.6%, and the procedures for participating in social insurance are complicated, so workers do not want to participate 33.4%; Procedures for enjoying social insurance benefits are still complicated (it is not easy to get money from social insurance) at 29.2%. Because this is applied research to implement policies, it mainly focuses on analyzing the Obstacles and limitations in policy implementation mechanisms; not paying attention to social, cultural, health factors and analyzing the relationship between socio-demographic factors and employees' participation in social insurance; The sample size is small, not regionally representative, and cannot reach micro-enterprises or family businesses... However, the strength of this research is the novelty of the research topic and approach to the problem. from the perspective of labor relations characteristics in enterprises to analyze employees' participation in social insurance [20].

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Pham Van Quyet and colleagues (2017) when researching social integration of poor immigrant workers in Vietnamese urban areas (2017) and many other studies by Actionaid and Oxfam (2012), Nguyen Duong (2015) , Dang Nguyen Anh (2012), Nguyen Huu Minh, Nguyen Xuan Mai and colleagues (2005), Le Bach Duong and Nguyen Thanh Liem (2011), Tran Nguyet Minh Thu (2014), Le Van Toan (2013) all show that There are many labor and social security procedures and policies associated with household registration that lead to a lack of harmony among migrant workers, especially unskilled and seasonal workers working in the informal economic sector. social integration in urban areas. The household registration factor affects the level of integration of poor immigrant workers in accessing and using insurance, health care, education services, and bank loans. The policy of management based on household registration has caused inequality between immigrants and permanent residents in accessing and using many public services. In addition, the social security policy system, especially social insurance, health insurance, and unemployment insurance, is incomplete, causing a significant number of immigrants to remain outside and not participate in this system. The policy system related to household registration and the incomplete social security network have not created an inclusive social environment, a society for all.

everyone. That is a barrier caused by society, contributing to preventing and slowing down the social integration process of poor immigrant workers in Vietnamese urban areas [33].

Participation in social insurance of employees in non-state enterprises in Hanoi - 5

Research by Pham Van Quyet (2017) also shows that there is a significant portion of poor immigrant workers working with labor contracts in the formal sector (57.3%), according to the Social Insurance Law, they are all working with labor contracts. Must be required by company owners, businesses, and economic establishments to pay compulsory social insurance and health insurance. However, in reality, not all business owners and economic establishments are willing to pay social insurance for their employees. Short-term contracts and seasonal contracts are also often applied by owners of economic establishments and owners of small labor groups to avoid having to pay social insurance. Therefore, factors from the business owner, the business owner's circumvention of the law by signing short-term labor contracts, are factors affecting participation in mandatory social insurance [33].

Hoang Minh Tuan (2018) doctoral thesis: "Research on factors affecting state management of Social Insurance in Vietnam"; The thesis has leaked the influencing factors and the level of impact of the factors on state management of social insurance in Vietnam. Based on that analysis and assessment, the author also offers many practical and appropriate solutions to further improve state management of social insurance in Vietnam today and in the coming period [42 ].

The Institute of Trade Union Workers (2019) conducted research on " Current status of labor contract termination of middle-aged workers (35-44 years old) in Vietnamese enterprises today" . The study also points out some views of researchers around the world on stereotypes affecting workers' behavior such as: Taylor (2011) said that: in reality, at work people often hold stereotypes about age & these stereotypes influence employment-related decisions. Furthermore, research by Richard A. Posthuma & Michael A. Campion (2009) also provided an example of the link between age stereotypes and discriminatory behavior against older workers. Research gives examples that managers may hold negative stereotypes about older workers, which in turn leads to discriminatory behaviors such as: workers may not be hired, may not be training or become the target of dismissal. Malcolm Sargeant (2006), employers' age prejudices are also one of the causes leading to the

Employment policies of businesses reduce the participation of older workers in the labor market [48].

In addition to studies on factors affecting social insurance participation of workers in the country and around the world, studies on this topic also show some notable findings:

When researching factors affecting certain human behavior, Ajzen and Fishbein (1975) published the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behavior. of Planned Behavior- TPB). According to Ajzen and Fishbein (1975), behavioral intention will be influenced by attitudes toward the behavior and subjective standards of the behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was developed from the theory of rational behavior (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1975), which was created due to the limitation of the previous theory in assuming that human behavior is Completely controlled by reason.

Georges, C., Helmuth, C&Pierre, P.(2000) in the article titled “Political sustainability and the establishment of social insurance” the authors analyze the issue of influential state support how to design social insurance. It distinguishes between redistribution and the scale of social protection. After the research process, the authors presented the results. First , it may be appropriate to adopt a system that is less redistributive than the other optimal level, in order to ensure state support for all participants in the social insurance system. Second , supplemental private insurance can increase the welfare of low-income people, even if it is available only to high-income people. Third , the case prohibits additional private insurance from participating in certain high-risk products for participants. The authors also concluded that complementary private insurance could develop better as the efficiency of the private insurance market for participants increases [57].

Studies by Yao and Zhong (2010) and Lu et al. (2010) in China also show a correlation between private enterprises with trade unions and participation in social insurance because unions represent and protect workers. protect employees in negotiating, signing labor contracts, paying social insurance for employees and including this requirement in the enterprise's collective labor agreement to

Protect the rights of workers and build harmonious labor relations within the enterprise. Therefore, the union organization factor is also a factor that affects workers' participation in social insurance [67].

Nyland and colleagues (2011) pointed out that the majority of businesses in Shanghai (China) use social insurance as a tool to recruit highly qualified workers. This is also consistent with the findings on the use of non-salary factors (social insurance) as an attractive factor to recruit and retain workers in US businesses in studies by Rice (1966), Woodbury (1983). Research results show that the benefits of participating in social insurance will be the factor that affects employees' desire to participate in social insurance.

Johanna Rickne (2012) analyzed the relationship between labor market conditions and participation in social insurance. When the labor market has developed at a high level, the labor supply, especially rural workers, has become more When there is scarcity, businesses use social insurance packages more to attract workers to work. However, meaningful statistical evidence of this relationship is only found when examining the private enterprise sector (including both domestic and foreign) rather than in state-owned and cooperative enterprises. communes, that is, private enterprises respond better to social insurance programs when the labor market changes. The public sector in general is often "responsible for market changes, especially in improving efficiency and improving labor relations, the reason may be due to finances (costs of social insurance contributions) of businesses." State-owned enterprises often have a "flexible" relationship with the state budget or these costs are accounted for in state public spending. The cost of paying social insurance in the public sector is "protected" by the State in terms of social security more than in the private sector. This is also the reason why, in labor market conditions with scarce labor supply, private enterprises with the majority of workers have low education levels and few/no trade unions. Established companies often respond better to changes in labor market conditions, for example, businesses can offer attractive working conditions such as social insurance contributions to recruit workers. It can be seen that, to a certain extent, the

Compliance with social insurance laws seems to increase due to the impact of the scarcity of human resources demand in the private sector during the development of the labor market. However, the result of this is to increase the coverage of social insurance in the labor force and reduce inequality in participation and enjoyment of social security between the private sector and the public sector.

Basically, the accuracy and reliability of these studies are also limited because they have not revealed the relationship between macroeconomic development and inequality in social insurance, nor have they analyzed the results. shares of labor groups, unemployed groups, labor recruitment positions, geographical areas, small and micro enterprise groups, informal sector and social insurance participation.

In general, it is possible that because the law makes participation in the social insurance program mandatory in the formal sector/industrial sector, it theoretically eliminates the decision-making process to participate or do not participate in compulsory social insurance. However, in reality, most developing countries have difficulty participating in social insurance programs in this region: compliance is low, enforcement is weak and many businesses use widespread measures. The method of "evading social insurance payments to save costs.

In the research article by Xian, H., Qin, G. (2014) titled “Does social insurance evaluate the performance of local governments? The author affirms that state management in China's Social Insurance is one of the important social policies in this country, and the success of Social Insurance is also one of the criteria for evaluating the performance of the government. Benefits from social insurance policy are very important for the development and stability of the country. The author analyzes that state management of social insurance helps the coverage of the policy increase and the support of the people for the government. increased because they received attention from state support and sponsorship policies. This article also points out that it is very important for people to understand the meaning of social insurance policy and register to participate in accordance with the law in participating in social insurance. The state wants social benefits to be distributed fairly in social life, improving people's intellectual level so that social insurance policy is truly a point of pride for people and workers in life. Thus, this study has pointed out the state management factor

about social insurance; Benefit factors from participating in social insurance and cognitive factors of employees affect employees' participation in social insurance [66].

Marcelo, B., & Guillermo, C. (2014) study: “Work and social insurance evasion, evidence from the extension of employment-based benefits” . This article examines how social insurance programs shape individuals' incentives to undertake registered employment and report income to tax authorities. This analysis is based on a social insurance reform in Uruguay that extended health insurance coverage to dependent children of registered private-sector workers. The identification strategy is based on comparisons between individuals with and without dependent children before and after the reform. The reform increased benefit-eligible registered employment by 1.6 percentage points (about 5% above the pre-reform level), largely due to an increase in labor force participation rather than a shift from non-employment. Register to registered job. The shift is larger for parents with young children and cohabiting adults whose partners' jobs do not provide the couple's children with access to benefits. Finally, the reform increased the odds of under-wage income by about 4 percentage points (25% higher than the pre-reform level), mainly for workers in small businesses. The increase in fiscal revenue from higher levels of registered employment is several orders of magnitude greater than the loss of revenue due to an increase in undermining [60].

Helmuth, C, & Kerstin, R (2015) in the article titled "Social insurance with an uncompetitive and risky market" , the authors point out that there is a certain influence between social insurance and commercial insurance. each other during operation. Participants can choose state social insurance or commercial insurance from private companies. The author also points out that in choosing the type of insurance, the majority of rich and high-income people often choose commercial insurance, while people with low and average income choose social insurance. Besides, the author also points out that in the process of implementing social security policies, if the state highly supports social insurance participants, it is easy to have negative impacts on other subjects in society. meeting without being able to participate

this type of social insurance. On the other hand, if the commercial insurance market is not strictly controlled by the state, it will be very dangerous when risks occur to participants, because there is no state sponsorship for the risks of participants. commercial insurance [58].

Sarah Alkenbrack et al (2015 ) “Research on evasion of compulsory health insurance in Laos” [65]. The study conducted a survey of 130 companies to understand the factors that determine private companies' participation in compulsory health insurance, specifically looking at company characteristics (e.g., industry). , ownership); Social characteristics of the company's head; Perception of business risks; Labor contract details; Employee benefits and exposure to social security. Small private enterprises (under 20 employees) are less likely to participate in health insurance and social insurance compared to large-scale enterprises (60 employees or more); Private enterprises participate less than state-owned enterprises; Foreign-invested enterprises participate more than domestic enterprises; Firms in the trading industry are more likely to participate than manufacturing, construction, or service firms [53]. Pension reform and expansion of post-retirement benefits, including improving the quality and expanding the coverage of health insurance (integrated into the pension insurance package) can increase the Participate in social insurance in the private sector because the reason for non-participation may partly stem from the fact that the enterprise has participated in other commercial insurance packages, including better health care insurance for employees. compared to the social health insurance package provided by the state [61]. This also coincides with research in Laos, the quality of hospitals provided in the social insurance package is an important factor affecting participation in social insurance and health insurance in Laos, therefore, the limitations of the system are limited. The poor health care system and quality of care are factors that limit the expansion of social insurance and health insurance coverage here. Employees in businesses rank the most important benefit as health care, followed by benefits from retirement insurance and sick leave, so the motivation for businesses to participate in social insurance comes from the need to participate. Health insurance for employees, increasing satisfaction and improving health and welfare for employees. If the quality of health care provided by health insurance is inferior to health care packages provided by insurance

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