Gradually and steadily expand social insurance coverage, towards the goal of universal social insurance and determine a roadmap and measures to develop social insurance participants from now to 2030.
However, in reality, the social insurance coverage rate is low. By the end of 2017, only 30.4% of the workforce of working age participated in social insurance, while about 69.9% still did not participate. (about 34 million people of working age). The number of people participating in compulsory social insurance according to the law is estimated at about 17 million people, but to date only 13.59 million people participate (accounting for 29% of the working-age force). After 10 years of implementing the voluntary social insurance policy, the number of new participants has reached about 291 thousand people, accounting for 0.7% of the total number of workers in the informal sector without labor relations. Furthermore, many businesses still limit the number of people participating in social insurance, or pay social insurance for employees but at a very low level. This reality poses many difficulties and challenges to the goals of development and social insurance coverage for people in the current context of population aging and raises many questions that need research and answers.
According to forecasts of the International Labor Organization, if there is no breakthrough in social insurance policy reform, by 2030 there will be over 38.7 million people of working age, accounting for 62% of the labor force, who have not yet participated and do not participate. protected by social insurance policy. Thus, the low social insurance coverage rate is one of the main problems of the social security system that Vietnam is trying to solve in the future. To overcome these limitations and challenges, the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the World Bank (WB) have recommended: Vietnam's social insurance policy in the coming time should target workers in businesses. small and medium enterprises, workers with short-term labor contracts and those not participating in an employment relationship. From Vietnam's practice, the WB expert group recommends prioritizing the expansion of social insurance coverage in the formal sector to increase the rate of social insurance participants to 17.8 million; Next, we need solutions to increase the rate of freelance workers participating in social insurance with support from the State; develop supplementary pension programs, and at the same time modernize the social insurance management system, increase the efficiency of pension fund investment.
Thus, in the period from now to 2030, it is necessary to research and analyze the causes and find factors affecting the behavior of employees participating in social insurance in enterprises, especially FDI enterprises and enterprises. Non-state enterprises will contribute to improving the effectiveness of implementing social insurance policies. Besides, in reality, there are not many studies interested in understanding the issue of factors affecting employees' participation in compulsory social insurance at the enterprise level because, theoretically, The mandatory nature of this policy has eliminated this topic from the majority of studies on social insurance or social security policies. However, in reality, the official sector's participation in compulsory social insurance is due to low levels of compliance, limited policy enforcement (and the policy itself) and businesses using many tactics to “circumvent the law, reduce costs to increase profits. This reality affects the right to enjoy social insurance policies for employees in life.
Therefore, I chose the thesis topic " Participation in social insurance of employees in non-state enterprises in Hanoi" as my doctoral thesis in sociology, with the hope of contributing more theoretical foundations. and practice to help policy makers and policy implementation organizations have a more complete and comprehensive understanding of the system of factors related to social insurance participation in enterprises, aiming at the goal of increasingly improving efficiency. social insurance policy for employees,
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2. Research purposes and tasks
Analyze the current status of social insurance participation of employees in non-state enterprises in Hanoi; Factors affecting the participation in social insurance of employees in these enterprises; From there, propose solutions to promote the expansion of social insurance participants at these enterprises to improve the effectiveness of social insurance policy implementation and ensure social security for employees.
2.2. Research mission
To carry out the research objectives, the project focuses on performing a number of tasks as follows:
1- Overview research to reveal the contributions and remaining gaps from research projects; Analyze and systematize theoretical and conceptual issues
and methodology on the social security system in general and social insurance in particular; Concepts of social security, social insurance, enterprises, labor relations, and participants in compulsory social insurance. In addition, the thesis also applies some sociological theories to explain the behavior of social insurance participants in non-state enterprises to ensure social security when facing risks during the working process and after. when the working age ends.
2- Based on secondary data sources and actual surveys, the thesis identifies the current situation of social insurance participation of employees in non-state enterprises.
3- Analyze factors affecting the participation in social insurance of employees in non-state enterprises.
4- Propose solutions to promote the expansion of the scope of social insurance participants in non-state enterprises, contributing to improving the effectiveness of social insurance policy implementation and ensuring social security for workers in the context of develop a socialist-oriented market economy.
3. Scope and objects of research
3.1. Research subjects:
Participation in social insurance of employees in non-state enterprises.
3.2. Research object of the thesis
The research subjects of the thesis include workers in non-state enterprises. This group of customers includes those who have participated in social insurance and employees who have not participated in social insurance in the enterprise. In addition, there are also target groups of employers/business owners and state management agencies related to the field of social insurance.
3.3. Research scope
3.3.1. Spatial scope : workers participating in social insurance in non-state enterprises in Hanoi city.
3.3.2. Time scope : The thesis's research data is used and updated from 2016 to 2019. The time to conduct additional qualitative surveys for the thesis topic is from May 2019 to December 2019.
3.2.3. Scope of content : The thesis focuses on researching employees participating in compulsory social insurance policies in non-state enterprises, that is, in the official economic sector, employees have labor relations to reduce
Minimize risks for workers during the process of participating in the labor market (including mandatory social insurance benefits such as sickness, maternity, labor accidents - occupational diseases, retirement, and death). Subjects participating in compulsory social insurance in this enterprise comply with the provisions of Article 2 of the Law on Social Insurance (2014).
The thesis has not studied the group of workers participating in the unemployment insurance policy because it has been transferred from the Social Insurance Law to adjusted in the Employment Law (2013) and the types of workers participating, the level of payment, and the level of insurance benefits. Unemployment according to the provisions of the Employment Law is also different from those participating in compulsory social insurance according to the provisions of the Social Insurance Law. The transfer of unemployment insurance policy from the system of social insurance policies adjusted by the Social Insurance Law (2006) to the Employment Law (2013) aims to link unemployment insurance policies with policies of the active labor market. Extremely helpful, helping workers who lose their jobs or become unemployed have the opportunity and conditions to return to the labor market soon. Therefore, workers who are unemployed/unemployed will receive not only unemployment benefits. (such as social insurance benefits to replace or partially compensate workers' income when they encounter risks, reduce or lose income), but also policies to support workers in participating in education. career improvement or career change; Consulting and introducing jobs to help unemployed people find new jobs, stabilize their lives and contribute to ensuring social security.
4. Research questions and hypotheses
4.1. Research question
Based on the objectives and limited scope of the research, the thesis proposes 3 research questions:
Question 1: What is the current status of social insurance participation of employees in non-state enterprises?
Question 2: What factors affect the participation in social insurance of employees in non-state enterprises?
Question 3: What solutions help promote social insurance participation of workers in non-state enterprises?
4.2. Research hypothesis
Hypothesis 1: Type of enterprise affects social insurance participation of employees in non-state enterprises.
Hypothesis 2: The production and business industry of the enterprise affects the participation in social insurance of employees in non-state enterprises.
Hypothesis 3: The size of the enterprise's workforce affects the insurance participation of employees in non-state enterprises.
5. Analytical framework
ECONOMIC - POLITICAL - SOCIAL CONTEXT
(Viewpoints and policies of the Party and State on socio-economic development, labor market, reform of the social security system, social insurance and targets to expand the coverage of social insurance starting tie…)
Social insurance policy and management factors :
- Policies and laws on compulsory social insurance; punishment
- State management and organization of implementation of policies and laws on social insurance
Factors belonging to the employee : socio-demographic characteristics (gender, age, education, salary, occupation/job; awareness of social insurance, social security...)
Factors belonging to businesses and unions :
- Business owners' awareness of paying social insurance for employees
- Type of enterprise; career; enterprise scale
- The establishment and operation of grassroots trade unions at enterprises
PARTICIPATING AND NOT PARTICIPATING IN SOCIAL INSURANCE OF EMPLOYEES IN ENTERPRISES
LABOR RELATIONS IN ENTERPRISES
( EMPLOYER – EMPLOYEE/WORKER REPRESENTATIVE ORGANIZATION )
6. Research methods
The thesis uses the following research methods.
6.1. Document analysis method :
6.1.1. Document source
- Analyze available documents such as legal documents, books, newspapers, magazines, topics, and research results related to the research field from domestic and foreign sources to understand the research problem. and the remaining gaps, build a theoretical basis, research questions, research hypotheses and aim at proposals and recommendations to improve social insurance policies for workers in the formal sector.
- Secondary data focuses on 2 main sources:
+ Electronic data source on employees and businesses participating in compulsory social insurance of Hanoi city is managed by the Information Technology System Operation Center under Vietnam Social Insurance (including: state-owned enterprises, private enterprises). foreign-invested enterprises and non-state enterprises). The data source allows exploiting all workers and businesses that have participated in social insurance in Hanoi city, updated data to 2017/2018, showing the content of social insurance participation. Workers' associations include: structure of enterprises participating in social insurance; number of workers and businesses participating in social insurance; Average monthly income as a basis for social insurance payment; Gender characteristics of social insurance participants; Time to participate in social insurance; place of residence, permanent residence and place of birth of employees participating in social insurance; Social insurance participation period of employees; Social insurance outstanding debt rate.
+ The results of enterprise survey data in Hanoi conducted by the General Statistics Office in 3 years 2016, 2017, 2018 showed the following contents: Type of enterprise (state-owned enterprises, non-state enterprises , FDI enterprises) ; main production and business sectors; total number of employees; number of employees paid social insurance; total amount paid to employees; Social insurance paid instead of salary; Contributing to union fees, net revenue...
6.1.2. Data analysis method
The data analysis was performed by the researcher as follows:
- For data used to analyze the current status of social insurance participation of workers in non-state enterprises in Hanoi: The researcher used Excel data files available from the Operations Center. Information technology system under Vietnam Social Insurance to select data for analysis.
- For data used to analyze factors affecting social insurance participation of non-state enterprises in Hanoi, the researcher used logistic regression analysis method according to the following steps. :
+ Step 1. The researcher transfers data files from the Excel file of the General Statistics Office for the years 2016, 2017, 2018 to SPSS 20.0 software for analysis.
+ Step 2. Researcher recodes (Recode into Same Variables) the independent variables including: personal factors (gender; ethnicity; place of residence; permanent residence; place of birth); Enterprise factors (enterprise type; enterprise size; production and business sectors); The variable belongs to (1. Participates in social insurance; 0. Does not participate in social insurance);
+ Step 3. The researcher cleans the data and conducts logistic regression analysis. The data in the regression analysis table were filtered by the researcher to include in the regression data table in the thesis.
6.1.3.Some limits and limitations of the method
- The electronic data source on workers and businesses participating in compulsory social insurance in Hanoi city is limited in that the collection targets only include a few groups of socio-demographic indicators, associated with management targets. of Vietnam Social Insurance such as: Date of birth, Gender, Ethnicity, Place of birth certificate issuance, Household address, Contact address, Salary/Salary coefficient as a basis for social insurance payment, Region of residence (Region 1, 2, 3, 4 to determine the regional minimum wage), Level, Participating unit/ Type of enterprise participating in social insurance. Information about the needs, motivations, habits, lifestyle of workers... and information about the role of trade unions must be used from other secondary sources of information.
- Results of the enterprise survey in Hanoi conducted by the General Statistics Office in 2016, 2017, 2018. The survey focused on 03 types of enterprises: State enterprise sector; Non-state enterprises; enterprises with foreign investment. Advantages: reliable data source covering all types