Natural Conditions and Socio-Economic Characteristics of Hanoi City

Expenditure from the Social Insurance Fund to handle the regime was 21,360 billion VND, then in 2013 it was 77,614 billion VND, an increase of 3.6 times compared to 2008. In 2014, the total social insurance expenditure according to the estimate assigned by the Government was 131,844 billion VND. ; Health insurance spending is 56,076 billion VND, unemployment insurance spending is 3,525 billion VND.

The payment of pensions and social insurance benefits has been improved through diversifying payment methods to create favorable conditions for beneficiaries such as payment through ATM card accounts; Payment is made through the commune payment representative and through the commune postal system. The payment of social insurance benefits and management of beneficiaries is generally stable, no major problems have occurred, the shortcomings in payment work have gradually been rectified and overcome by localities; The management of contact subjects has been strengthened and controlled more strictly.

The period from 2014 to present

At the 8th Session of the 13th National Assembly, on November 20, 2014, the National Assembly passed the Social Insurance Law and took effect from January 1, 2016. To guide the implementation of social insurance, the Government and the Ministry of Labor, War Invalids and Social Affairs have issued guiding documents. In general, the social insurance law of this period has inherited and developed appropriate current regulations that have come to life, amended inappropriate regulations, and ensured the consistency of the legal system; Add new regulations consistent with the country's socio-economic realities and international economic integration requirements; Continue to improve the diverse and flexible social insurance system; Expanding subjects participating in social insurance; develop policies to encourage farmers and workers in the informal sector to participate in voluntary social insurance; basically comply with the principle of contribution - benefit and ensure the ability to balance the social insurance fund; Complete social insurance policies, develop and implement supplementary pension insurance policies; have a roadmap to ensure equality in participation and enjoyment of social insurance between workers in the state and non-state sectors; Develop social insurance regimes that comply with the principle of benefit levels based on contributions and sharing among social insurance participants depending on the nature of each regime, ensuring fairness and sustainability. of the social insurance system; protect legitimate rights and interests

of social insurance participants; create favorable conditions for all workers to participate and enjoy social insurance benefits; Strengthen the application of information in social insurance management to reform administrative procedures and manage participants; Refer to and selectively absorb the experiences of countries around the world, especially countries with conditions suitable to Vietnam's socio-economic development conditions 4 . Content of mandatory social insurance policy

- Contribution level

The monthly social insurance payment rate is equal to the social insurance payment rate multiplied by (x) the monthly salary paid for social insurance (for compulsory social insurance).

Compulsory social insurance

Voluntary social insurance 5

- Contribution rate: 26% of the employee's monthly salary and wages for social insurance (in which: employee pays: 8%, employer pays: 18% ).

- Monthly salary paid for social insurance for employees implementing the salary regime prescribed by the State is salary based on rank, grade, military rank and position allowances, extra-seniority allowances, and seniority allowances. professional years (if any).

- From January 1, 2016-2017: Monthly salary paid for social insurance of employees according to the salary regime

Wages are decided by the employer

- Contribution rate: 22% of income chosen by the employee.

- The lowest contribution level is equal to the poverty standard for rural areas 6 , c: 22% x 700,000 =

154,000 VND/month.

- The highest contribution level is equal to 20 times the base salary 7 at the time of payment, can be: 22% x 1,300,000 x 20 =

5,720,000 VND/month

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5 According to the Law on Social Insurance (2014), from January 1, 2018, the State supports social insurance contributions for participants.

Voluntary social insurance can be as follows: Equal to 30% for voluntary social insurance participants from poor households; equal to 25% for voluntary social insurance participants from near-poor households; equal to 10% for other subjects. The support period depends on each person's actual time participating in voluntary social insurance but must not exceed 10 years (120 months). Accordingly, the monthly payment support for voluntary social insurance participants in the period 2018-2020 is: 46,200 VND/month for the poor, 38,500 VND/month for the near-poor and

15,400 VND/month for other subjects.

6 According to Decision 59/2015/QD-TTg on promulgating a multi-dimensional poverty line applicable to the period 2016 - 2020, the poverty line for rural areas in the period 2016 - 2020 is 700,000 VND/person/month

7 According to Decree 47/2017/ND-CP regulating the base salary for officials, civil servants, public employees and the armed forces, the base salary from July 1, 2017 is 1,300,000 VND/person. /month

The month of social insurance payment is the salary and salary allowance.

- From January 1, 2018, the monthly salary paid for social insurance is the salary, salary allowances and other additional payments. Additional amounts used to calculate social insurance contributions are additional amounts that determine the specific amount of money along with the salary agreed upon in the labor contract and are paid regularly during each salary payment period.

- Effects mode

Compulsory social insurance participants are entitled to 5 benefits including sickness, maternity, occupational accidents and diseases, retirement and death, while voluntary social insurance participants are only entitled to 2 benefits: retirement and death.

+ Sickness regime

When participating in compulsory social insurance, an employee gets sick or has an accident certified by a competent medical facility that is not an occupational accident or occupational disease or has a sick child under 7 years old that is certified by a medical facility. will receive sickness benefits. The level of sickness benefit is 75% of the salary of the month immediately preceding the month the employee is sick.

+ Maternity regime

Female employees who are surrogate mothers, give birth, or adopt children (under 6 months old) and have paid social insurance for 6 months or more within 12 months before giving birth or adopting a child will be entitled to leave before and after giving birth. baby is 6 months. The current Social Insurance Law also stipulates that male employees who are paying social insurance and whose wife gives birth are entitled to maternity leave. This regulation is considered very humane, promptly meets the interests of social insurance participants, creating fairness and equality for participants on the principle of contribution and benefit.

+ Labor accident and occupational disease regime

The occupational accident and occupational disease regime is one of 05 compulsory social insurance regimes prescribed in the Social Insurance Law. However, in 2015, the National Assembly passed the Law on Safety and Security

labor and transferring the occupational accident and occupational disease regime to this Law aims to improve the effectiveness of protection, prevention and support for workers when encountering occupational accidents and diseases.

+ Retirement benefits

Retirement is considered the most important regime in social insurance policy. Because the purpose of participating in social insurance today is to receive a full pension when old, ensuring a life when no longer working. After a long period of working, male workers are 60 years old. , female workers who are 55 years old and have paid social insurance for 20 years will enjoy retirement benefits. In some cases, the age to receive pension is set lower than that for men, from 55 to 60 years old, for women, from 50 to 55 years old, with 15 years of working in a profession or heavy, toxic job. Harmful, dangerous or especially heavy, toxic or dangerous in the list of issued mc or having worked for 15 years in a place with a regional compensation coefficient of 0.7 or higher will be eligible for retirement benefits. For workers who have worked in coal mines for 15 years, they will enjoy retirement benefits when they are 50 to 55 years old and have paid social insurance for 20 years. Especially for people infected with HIV/AIDS due to occupational accidents and having paid social insurance for 20 years, they are also eligible to enjoy retirement benefits.

For the voluntary social insurance regime, the conditions to enjoy the retirement regime are similar to the mandatory social insurance regime, male employees are 60 years old, female employees are 55 years old and have paid social insurance for 20 years.

+ Death regime

Regulations on the level of funeral allowances and monthly survivor benefits in compulsory social insurance and voluntary social insurance are quite similar, however, voluntary social insurance does not have a monthly survivor benefit for employees' relatives. In addition, the conditions for receiving funeral benefits in the voluntary social insurance regime are more stringent than those in the compulsory social insurance regime, specifically: Employees who have paid voluntary social insurance for 60 months or more will only be eligible to receive the benefits. funeral benefits while compulsory social insurance only stipulates that employees who pay social insurance or are reserving the time for paying social insurance and must pay social insurance for 12 months or more will be entitled to funeral benefits.

- One-time social insurance

According to the provisions of Article 60 of the current Social Insurance Law and Resolution No. 93/2015/QH13 dated June 22, 2015 of the National Assembly, people who are old enough to enjoy pension but have not yet paid social insurance for 20 years or have paid social insurance for 15 years Social insurance and not continuing to participate in voluntary social insurance, people who settle abroad, people who are suffering from life-threatening diseases such as cancer, polio, cirrhosis, ascites, leprosy, severe tuberculosis, and HIV infection. stage of AIDS and other diseases according to the regulations of the Ministry of Health, in the case of employees participating in compulsory social insurance after one year of quitting work, and those participating in voluntary social insurance after one year of not continuing to pay social insurance for less than 20 years. Paying social insurance and requesting to receive one-time social insurance will receive one-time social insurance.

Chapter 3


3.1. Natural conditions and socio-economic characteristics of Hanoi city

3.1.1. Geographical - natural conditions

About geographical location:

Hanoi city is located in the northwest of the Red River Delta, adjacent to Thai Nguyen, Vinh Phuc, and Bac Giang provinces in the north; Ha Nam and Hoa Binh in the south; Bac Ninh, Hung Yen in the East; Hoa Binh and Phu Tho in the West.

From August 1, 2008, Resolution No. 15/2008/NQ-QH12 of the National Assembly (term

XII) takes effect on adjusting the administrative boundaries of Hanoi city and a number of related provinces. Accordingly, Hanoi expanded to include the entire natural area and population of Hanoi city (old), Ha Tay province, Me Linh district of Vinh Phuc province and 4 communes of Luong Son district, Hoa Binh province. Hanoi today has a natural area of ​​3,344.7 km2, located on both left and right banks of the Red River, but concentrated mainly on the right bank. Hanoi currently has 12 districts, 17 districts and 1 town. The number of commune-level administrative units is 584 (386 communes, 177 wards, 21 towns), nearly 8,000 villages and groups.

street population - the most in the country 8 .

3.1.2. About socio-economic conditions

According to Hanoi's report, Hanoi's average growth rate is 1.3 times higher than the national average; The scale of GRDP increased nearly 2 times after 10 years, not only of the old Hanoi part but also of the entire former expansion area. By the end of 2017, Hanoi contributed 19% of the country's budget revenue and 16.5% of the country's GDP. Growth of gross regional product (GRDP) in the period 2008 - 2018 reached average

8 Specifically, Hanoi currently has 12 districts including: Bac Tu Liem, Ba Dinh, Cau Giay, Dong Da, Hai Ba Trung, Hoan Kiem, Ha Dong, Hoang Mai, Long Bien, Thanh Xuan, Tay Ho and Nam Tu Liem . 17 districts include: Dan Phuong, Gia Lam, Dong Anh, Chuong My, Hoai Duc, Ba Vi, My Duc, Phuc Tho, Me Linh, Soc Son, Thach That, Quoc Oai, Thanh Tri, Thuong Tin, Thanh Oai, Phu Xuyen and Ung Hoa and 1 town (Son Tay).

7.41% per year. The scale of GRDP was 1.9 times greater than before the expansion, and per capita income increased 2.3 times to more than 3,900 USD 9 .

Figure 3.1. The role of Hanoi's economy

total investment in rural areas in the period 2008-2018 is about 18,000 billion vnd and nearly 3/4 1

Total investment in rural areas in the period 2008-2018 is about 18,000 billion VND and nearly 3/4 of this capital source is supported specifically in 14 districts and towns of Ha Tay and Me Linh. However, the gap between rural and urban areas and the difference in educational level of capital citizens is still large. Overall per capita income was 86 million VND in 2017, but in rural areas it was only 38 million VND.

In 2008, only 27.5% of working workers in the city were trained, but by 2018, this number was 63.18%, much higher than the national average. The number of people with jobs also increased when in 2018, the whole city created jobs for more than 190,000 workers, an increase of 25.1% compared to 2017. Hanoi currently has 369 vocational education establishments, on average every year. Enrollment and vocational training for about 150,000-190,000 people.

Hanoi is one of the 5 cities with the largest labor supply in the country. As a major economic center of the country, labor demand in Hanoi holds a high position compared to other localities. The demand for labor generally increases steadily every year. In addition to local labor, there is also a number of laborers from other localities coming in. On average, in the period 2008 - 2014, the net immigration rate into Hanoi was about 0.5%/year, corresponding to about 30,000 - 35,000 people added to Hanoi's population every year from immigration sources. To meet that need, Hanoi has implemented

9 Vnexpress electronic newspaper: The 10-year transformation of Hanoi's economy. Wednesday, August 1, 2018, 09:43 (GMT+7).

There is currently a plan to develop businesses in the area in both quantity and scale, so it has partly met the needs of workers. In 2014, the number of people with formal jobs in various types of businesses accounted for about 52.8% of the total population in the area.

Figure 3.2. Total products in Hanoi

in terms of structure, the ratio of female and male workers has an average difference of about 6.3% 2

In terms of structure, the ratio of female and male workers has an average difference of about 6.3% (female workers are always less than male workers). Hanoi is considered to be in a golden population period with its young human resource reaching its maximum and a large proportion of the young population in the working age. The age group from 15 - 19 years old and over 65 years old account for a very low proportion, only about 5% - 6%, the age group from 20 - 64 accounts for the main proportion in the current Hanoi workforce. By region, Hanoi currently has 60.6% of its total workforce (about 2.6 million people) living in rural areas. According to economic sectors, workers in the state sector account for about 19%, followed by the private sector

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