Method of Exploiting Geographical Knowledge From Map


Step 2 : Organize for students to discuss in groups

+ Divide students in the class into 3 groups, each group choose a leader and a letter

+ Assign tasks to each group

Group 1 : Analyze table 24.3, combine observed images, please

Comment on the change in the proportion of urban population and the rate of rural population?

Group 2 : Analyzing the map of the proportion of urban population in the world, period 2000 - 2005, complete the following table:

Percentage of urban population

Region, country


The shortest

Maybe you are interested!

Method of Exploiting Geographical Knowledge From Map

Group 3 : In real terms, tell me about the manifestations that show that the lifestyle of the rural population is moving closer to the urban lifestyle. Expressed in:

. How has the percentage of people not engaged in agriculture changed?

. How has the structure of settlements changed?

. Other symptoms?

+ Students in groups exchange and discuss in groups (5 minutes)

+ Student representatives from groups present the results of the group's discussion. Students from other groups added. The teacher summarizes the discussion and clarifies the content of the discussion.

Step 3 : The teacher asks the question: From the characteristics analyzed above, please state the concept of urbanization?

+ Students present the concept of urbanization

+ Teacher accurately defines the concept: Urbanization is a socio-economic process whose manifestation is a rapid increase in the number and size of urban settlements, the concentration of population in urban areas. city, especially in large cities, and widespread urban lifestyle.

The form of small group discussions facilitates students to participate more widely and freely than in class discussions. When discussing in small groups, those who are hesitant to speak in front of the whole class can present their ideas, which can be presented orally with pictures, tables, and drawings. The form of group discussion has many advantages in forming socio-economic geographical concepts for students, so it should be applied. The biggest difficulty in the discussion is about timing. Therefore, teachers must consider between ensuring the lesson objectives with the time specified in the lesson.

2.3.4. Methods of exploiting geographic knowledge from maps

Maps are a visual medium, an important source of geographic knowledge. Through the map, students can see a large area of ​​​​territory, distant territories on the Earth's surface that they do not have the conditions to go to the place to observe.

In terms of content, maps have the ability to reflect the distribution and relationships of geographical features on the Earth's surface in a specific way that no other medium can do. The symbols, colors, and expressions on the map are the geographical content that has been encoded, becoming a special language - the language of the map.

In terms of methods, maps are considered as visual means, helping students to exploit, consolidate knowledge and develop thinking in the process of teaching Geography. In order to exploit the knowledge on the map, students must first understand the map, read the map, that is, they must grasp the theoretical knowledge about the map, on that basis, they have the skills to work with the map. map.

In the skills of exploiting map information, the most difficult and complicated for students is the skill of reading maps. Reading the map, students have to do it in two stages:

- Stage 1: memorizing the names of pre-existing features coded in the program, considering their position on the map and their relationship

spatial relationship with other objects, find and point the correct position on the map, determine the characteristics of the object represented on the map. This can only be done when students know the system of signs and symbols on the map.

- Stage 2: explore mutual and cause-effect relationships, map out the signs that are not shown directly on the map, but are related to the signs of their manifestation, describe the synthesis an area.

Methods of training map skills for students in class include: Teacher modeling, asking questions based on the map, assigning students exercises using maps. The question associated with the map normally takes the form: Where ? Why there? Or: How are they related to each other? Observe and state the main characteristics of things?

* Example: Applying the method of exploiting geographical knowledge from the map to form the concept of population distribution (Lesson 24 - Geography Textbook 10).

The essential signs of the concept of Population Distribution, there are 2 signs as follows:

Spontaneous or voluntary population arrangement in a territory

+ Suitable for living conditions and requirements of society. Steps to form the concept of population distribution for students:

Step 1 : Teacher hangs a map of population distribution and major cities in the world.

Step 2 : Guide students to analyze the map above.

+ Based on the notation system on the map, find the symbols representing the world population density: high, low, ...

+ Determine the distribution of world population density on the map?

+ From the population density distribution as above, what do you think about human settlement?

Answer: Humans live in communities.

The place is densely populated, the place is sparse.

+ From the map combining knowledge learned in grade 9, can you comment and explain the population concentration in the Red River Delta and the Central Highlands of our country? The population of the Central Highlands has increased in recent years mainly due to what reasons?

Answer: The Red River Delta has a very high population density due to favorable living conditions; The Central Highlands is sparsely populated due to difficult living conditions. In recent years, the population of the Central Highlands has increased mainly due to mechanical increase, because of the policy of the State to send people to build a new economic zone here.

+ Teacher finalizes the characteristics of the population distribution.

Step 3 : State the definition of the concept of population distribution.

+ Question: From the characteristics of the population distribution, what is the concept of population distribution?

+ Ss answer. Teacher precise concept: Population distribution is the arrangement of the population spontaneously or voluntarily in a certain territory, in accordance with living conditions and the requirements of society.

Thus, the method of exploiting geographical knowledge from the map is a very suitable method to form the concept of socio-economic geography for 10th grade students in Bac Kan high school, because as analyzed, the province's students are limited in terms of knowledge. abstract thinking. Maps are both a source of knowledge and a visual medium that will help students form socio-economic geographical concepts more effectively.

2.3.5. The grap . method

Grap is a diagram that visually represents the content of the lesson's knowledge. Therefore, this method can also be called the method of diagramming in teaching.

The schematic structure of a Geography lesson will be a unified network made up of horizontal and vertical circuits created by the intellectual logic of the class lesson and the relationships between them.

closely related multi-dimensional relationship including: basic knowledge peak, inferential and analytical knowledge peak, essential knowledge peak, and evaluation.

In practice, we will use descriptive diagrams, in which the vertex will be modeled by points of circles, squares, hollow rectangles, and arcs as directional lines (straight, curved, or folded arrows). segment).

In teaching, we will use oriented grabs, here essentially the grap describes the network of teaching activities and the logic of that activity. Therefore, the most important thing for teaching grap is the teaching content. Grap teaching content, also known as class content grap, is a model of structuring lessons in an intuitive, general, and concise way of the content of textbooks and lectures. Grap lesson content includes:

+ Basic knowledge of the lesson (key concepts or ideas).

+ Derived relationships between key knowledge describe the internal development logic of the lesson, from the beginning knowledge to the final conclusion.

To structure the knowledge of the grap diagram, the teacher conducts the following steps:

+ Based on textbook documents, select articles and sections that are capable of applying grap.

+ In each lesson, the teacher analyzes the entire basic content, finds the main concepts, the original concept - called the peak, the next concepts called the development peak.

+ Arrange knowledge in a logical order, consistent with the logic of development of knowledge content.

+ Encode key knowledge to include vertices.

+ Create arcs connecting vertices based on the relationships between them.

Grap diagrams can be used in cases to form concepts, to review at the end of a chapter (or to summarize a lesson), and to test students in class or do homework. To teach a whole new lesson with a still grap diagram

can do but rarely because class time does not allow. Therefore, using this method to form a certain concept is most advantageous.

In order to form the concept of socio-economic geography for students by the grap method, teachers can follow the following steps:

+ The first step: The teacher pays attention to select the vertices and establish the cause-and-effect relationships to clarify the concept to be formed. Lead students to grasp the core knowledge (peak 1), the development knowledge (peak 2, 3 ...).

+ The second step: after students are familiar with how to teach - learn according to the grap diagram, the teacher conducts the second training step, which is to outline the main ideas of the concept, and then let the students create their own grap.

+ The third step: The teacher makes a graph and lets students make an outline of the concept and draw conclusions


* Example: Apply the grap method to form the concept of Market

(Lesson 40 - Geography 10 Textbook), follow the way of interpretation.

The steps are as follows:

Step 1 : The teacher hangs a simple diagram of the market's operation (enlarge in the textbook)

Goods and services are exchanged



Equivalents (gold coins, ...)

Step 2 : Question: Through the diagram above, what is the concept of market? How many signs does the market concept have?

Answer: A market is a meeting place between sellers (sellers) and buyers (buyers), through the exchange of goods and services.

The concept of the Market has two signs:

+ A meeting place to exchange goods and services

+ Seller (seller), buyer (buyer)

Step 3 . (to deepen the concept for students). Ask:

+ Actual contact, please tell me where the market is?

Answer: market, supermarket, stock market, market for buying and selling over the Internet...

+ What types of markets are there?

Based on products, there are markets for goods, labor, capital, and gray matter


Based on the space, there are domestic and foreign markets.

The formation of socio-economic-geographic concepts by the grap method has a positive effect in developing students' independent thinking (training students to think in general, helping students learn new lessons intelligently). through finding logical relationships between geographical phenomena and applying scientific knowledge to solve new situations.

The point of the grap diagram method is intuitive, so it is very suitable for high school students in grade 10 in Bac Kan province.

2.4. Applying the teaching methods to form the concept of socio-economic geography in some lessons in the 10th Geography textbook at Bac Kan high school

Due to the characteristics of the socio-economic situation of Bac Kan province, there are still many difficulties, and the facilities for teaching are still lacking. The cognitive characteristics of students are still limited, the ability to think abstractly is poor, especially thinking manipulations such as comparison, analysis, synthesis, generalization, the ability to convey the teacher's teaching into thought. of students faces many difficulties. However, these weaknesses are not the nature of the mountainous ethnic minority students in the province, but due to limitations in living conditions and circumstances. Therefore, in the process of forming concepts, teachers should take advantage of concrete thinking to lead students to understand abstract thinking. The method of concept formation by the inductive path, i.e. from specific to general, is suitable for students of the province, especially should use visual teaching aids such as maps, pictures, samples and take examples close to students' lives to form the concept of socio-economic geography. Applying the methods of teaching and learning to form the concept of socio-economic geography for students, in which the teacher pays special attention to clearly stating that the concept hasWhat signs , paths and steps to form that concept.

In the framework of the thesis, we only present the method of forming the concept of socio-economic geography in some articles in the 10th Geography textbook, which are:

- Lesson 23. Population structure.

- Lesson 24. Population distribution. Types of settlements and urbanization.

- Lesson 36. Roles, characteristics and factors affecting the development and distribution of the transport industry.

- Lesson 40. Geography of trade.

The details of each article are as follows:


I. Lesson Objectives

1. About knowledge

- Students understand and distinguish types of population structure according to age, gender, population structure according to labor and educational level.

- Identify the influence of population structure on population growth and socio-economic development.

- Know how to divide the population by age group and how to show the age pyramid.

2. About skills: Practice skills in analyzing and commenting on data tables, charts, diagrams, and population structure diagrams.

3. Attitudes and behaviors: Students are aware that our country's population is young and the need for education and employment is increasing. Being aware of the role of young people in population, education, labor and employment.

II. Teaching equipment

- Wall-mounted textbook map Population distribution and major cities in the world.

- Figure 23.1 in the textbook (enlarged).

- Computer and projector.

III. Concepts and hierarchies of the lesson's conceptual system

(As shown in figure 2.2)

IV. Concept formation method

- State the problem, suggestive conversation, group discussion, grap diagram.

- Exploiting picture channels in textbooks and other data tables.

- In particular, it is necessary to relate the knowledge learned in the lower class because some concepts in the lesson are related to the knowledge students learn in 7th grade, 9th grade.

V. Teaching organization

* Introduction: The teacher explains the term "population structure" and the meaning of studying population structure.

Activities of teachers and students

main content

* Activity 1 : Students work in pairs. Formation of the concept of population structure by gender.

- For students to calculate the male-female correlation according to the data: In 2005, the population of Vietnam was 83.12 million people, of which the number of men was 40.85 million people, and the number of women was 42.27 million people.

- Students read the results of the teacher's standard correct results.

- Ask: What is the population structure by sex?

- HS answered. The teacher corrects the concept.

- The teacher hangs a table of data on the population structure by gender of our country over the years. HS comments?

- Question: What effect does gender structure have on

socio-economic development? For example ?

I. Biological Structure

1. Population structure by sex

- Definition: The population structure by sex represents the relationship between men and women or the total population.

- The population structure by gender fluctuates over time and is different at each step.

- Influencing economic development, life organization and strategic planning

socio-economic development.

* Activity 2: Individual / group. Forming the concept of population structure by age, population pyramid.

- Question: What is the population structure by age?

- Students answer. Knowledge standard teacher.

- Group discussion: 4 groups (Time: 5 minutes)

Step 1 : Teacher assigns tasks to groups

Groups 1+3 : Based on the table of age group structure in textbook p.90, distinguish countries with young and old population structure? The influence of each type of structure on socio-economic development?

Group 2+4 :

+ Observe and analyze population pyramids in

2. Population structure by age

- Concept: The age structure of the population is a collection of groups of people arranged according to certain ages.

- Population structure by age is divided into 3 groups


- Developing countries have a young population structure,

Developed countries have

What is the population pyramid in the textbook? Meaning?

+ Compare the differences of 3 types of population pyramids (bottom of tower, top of tower, showing population characteristics) and make a comparison table.

Step 2 : Students in the group exchange and discuss. Step 3 : Representatives of the groups report the results. The other group added.

Step 4 : The teacher standardizes knowledge and structural relationships

Vietnam's population.

aging population structure.

- Population pyramid is a chart showing the structure of the population by age and gender.

- Three basic types of population pyramids (Comparison table).

* Activity 3 : Individual . Forming the concept of population structure by labor.

- Question: Monitor content a. What is the source of labor in the textbook? Complete the following diagram:

Labor source

Active population Active population No

economic activity KT

- Question: Read item b. Textbook combined with figure 23.2 shows: How many groups are active population by economic sector? Which country has the highest percentage of population active in Region I? The shortest? Explain why?

- Ss present the results. Knowledge standard teacher.

- Contact: Teacher hangs a chart of labor structure of

II. Social structure

1. Population structure by labor

a. Labor source

- Definition: Labor resources are people of working age who are able to participate in labor.

- Labor resources are divided into 2 groups:


b. Active population by economic sector

- The population operates by economic sector, including 3 areas (textbook).

- In developed countries

Labor rate in region I is lowest, region 3 is high

Vietnam in 2003. Let students comment?


* Activity 4 : individual. Concept formation

2. Population structure by

population structure according to cultural level.

cultural level

- Question: Based on the text channel in the textbook p.92, you

- Population structure by program

Please give the meaning of population structure according to

cultural significance

cultural level? Qualification criteria

important, because it reflects

culture? How do I understand those metrics?

education level, education level

- Ss answer, other students add.

of the population.

- Teacher standard knowledge.

- Rating criteria:

+ Literacy rate: is

the percentage (%) of these

- Question: Based on table 23 in the textbook, draw

people 15 years and older


know how to read, understand, and write

- Contact Vietnam: literacy rate is

simple sentence.


+ Number of years in school: is

the highest number of years that

per person from 25 years old

and above can go to school.

BECAUSE. Evaluation: Ask students to complete and state the meaning of each class of the following diagram:

Population structure

Date published: 25/01/2023
4.8/5 (1 votes)

Send Message

Agree Privacy Policy *