The size of the probability ratios is not high, nor is the difference between these types of businesses statistically significant.
+ Type of enterprise: similar to 2016, the more non-state-owned enterprises are, the less they participate in social insurance, compared to enterprises with foreign capital (FDI), the difference ratio is [0.25-1 ].
+ Enterprise size affects social insurance participation. The larger the number of employees an enterprise has, the higher the rate of participation in the social insurance program. Odds ratio between Enterprises with very small labor scale (1 to 10 employees); small businesses (10 to 100 employees); Medium enterprises (100-200 employees); Large enterprises (over 200 employees) are [0.05-0.2-0.4-1].
+ Economic sector: in 2017 there were changes compared to 2016, namely: more businesses operating in the banking and finance sector; businesses that wholesale, retail, and repair cars and motorbikes; Professional scientific and technological activities; Education and training; Health and social assistance means more actively participating in social insurance.
- For 2018: The more non-state-owned enterprises are, the less likely they are to participate in social insurance, compared to foreign-invested enterprises (FDI), the difference ratio is [0.1-1] ;
Similar to 2016 and 2017, the size of the enterprise's workforce affects social insurance participation. The larger the labor size of the enterprise, the higher the social insurance participation rate. The difference ratio between enterprises is: Enterprises with very small labor scale (1 to 10 employees); small businesses (10 to 100 employees); Medium enterprises (100-200 employees); For large enterprises (over 200 employees), the odds ratio is [0.04-0.25-0.5-1].
With economic sectors: in 2018 there were changes compared to 2016 and 2017, namely: more businesses operating in the field of health and social assistance; Financial, banking and insurance activities; Education and training more actively participate in the social insurance program. A notable finding is that businesses operating in finance, banking and insurance tend to reduce their participation in social insurance compared to 2017.
Table 4.3. Logistic regression model of factors affecting social insurance participation of non-state enterprises 14
Factors affecting participation
Type of business
FDI enterprises – Opposite group
Arts, entertainment –
Agriculture, forestry and fisheries, mining; production and distribution
electricity, gas, steam distribution
Manufacturing and processing industry
Water supply, garbage and wastewater treatment
Wholesale, retail, car and vehicle repair
Transport and warehouse
Accommodation and food services
Information and communication
Financial, banking and
Real estate business activities
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14 The data is used from the enterprise survey source of the total statistics conducted in 2016, 2017, 2018
Administrative and translation activities etc
Education and training
Health and social assistance
Enterprise size by TB
Large enterprises (200 workers
dynamic) – Control group
Micro enterprises (1 to 10
Small businesses (10 to 100 workers
Medium enterprises (100-200 workers
Professional and scientific activities
Notes: * significant at the 5 percent level;
**significant at the 1 percent level
*** Testing the first, second, and third research hypotheses: type of enterprise, production and business industry, and labor size of the enterprise affect the level of social insurance participation of people. labor in the enterprise.
The above data results show that: Research hypothesis 1 is accepted: Type of enterprise affects the participation in social insurance of employees in non-state enterprises; Research hypothesis 2: The production and business industry of the enterprise affects the participation in social insurance of employees in non-state enterprises and research hypothesis 3:
The size of the enterprise's workforce affects the insurance participation of employees in non-state enterprises.
4.1.5. Non-state enterprises treat workers unfairly
Currently, in Hanoi, the issue of poor treatment of older workers by non-state enterprises is a matter of public concern. "Unfair termination of labor contracts" of some non-state enterprises has become an issue that attracts attention, attracting the attention of many agencies, departments, unions, experts, and experts. policy planning in general and social insurance policy in particular. Unfair termination of labor contracts directly affects the lives, rights, and livelihoods of workers, including the worker's right to participate in social insurance.
One of the reasons why businesses terminate labor contracts is based on discrimination based on the employee's age. So what is age discrimination among workers? Age discrimination is when one person is treated less favorably than another person in a similar situation, because of their age.
For example, it could be “direct age discrimination” if an older applicant is not considered for a job because the employer cites their inability to use technology. It is also age discrimination when there is a rule or policy that is the same for everyone but has an unfair effect on people of a particular age. This is called “indirect discrimination.” For example, it may be indirect age discrimination if an employer requires an older person to meet a physical fitness test - which many younger people could meet - if the physical standards are met. effort is not an inherent requirement of the job. (Source: Australian Human Rights Commission (2014): Know your rights: Age Discrimination ).
So what is the situation of age discrimination against workers in Vietnam and Hanoi? And how does it affect social insurance participation of workers in Hanoi? Some findings from previous studies show:
According to research by the Institute of Workers and Trade Unions (2018) in the report "Overview of the situation of workers, civil servants, public employees, and labor in agencies, organizations, units, and enterprises and some forecasts." " During the preparation of the Documents of the 12th Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party, the phenomenon of units and businesses showing signs of trying to terminate unfair labor contracts for middle-aged workers, workers with a high number of years of service, especially female workers are increasing but there is still a lack of handling measures.
According to the results of a research report by the Vietnam Labor Institute - VGCL (2017), non-state enterprises also treat workers unfairly: under productivity pressure, high labor standards - high intensity. stressful labor - reduced health; The income is not high and unstable, there is no time to take care of family happiness and children's education. In particular, there are many businesses looking for ways to stop using middle-aged workers such as: terminating labor contracts ahead of time; Sign many short-term labor contracts and terminate upon expiration; creating excuses or rearranging production to terminate labor contracts, lay off...
Research report of the Legal Department - Ministry of Labor, Invalids and Social Affairs (2017) said that: there have been some situations of discrimination against older workers, although not common, but in fact taking place in localities. , concentrated in a number of non-state enterprises, labor-intensive processing industries such as textiles, footwear, electricity - electronics, g, and seafood processing, in some provinces including Hanoi. Regarding the form of termination of labor contracts: some businesses find ways for employees to agree to terminate labor contracts ahead of time due to not meeting job requirements or changing technological structure.
In addition, recently, many press agencies have also reported discrimination and dismissal of middle-aged workers. According to author Song Phuong (2017), in recent years there has been a situation where businesses seek to lay off middle-aged workers doing simple jobs, especially in the textile and footwear industries. The author also said that these middle-aged workers will then have difficulty finding jobs in businesses. According to Xuan Thao (2017), in recent years there has been a situation where businesses are circumventing the law and using many measures to terminate labor contracts with employees over 35 years old. According to the investigation of the Nguoi Lao Dong newspaper reporter group (2018), there is a phenomenon
Enterprises use the excuse of narrowing production to terminate labor contracts with older workers, but then recruit temporary workers and young workers to replace them. In addition, the article also gives many examples of middle-aged workers finding it difficult to find a new job after being fired.
4.1.6. Trade union organization
According to the 2012 Trade Union Law, "Trade Unions are large socio-political organizations of the working class and workers, established on a voluntary basis, and are members of the political system of society." Vietnam Association, under the leadership of the Communist Party of Vietnam; representing cadres, civil servants, public employees, workers and other workers, along with state agencies, economic organizations, and society takes care of and protects the legal and legitimate rights and interests of workers; participates in state management, socio-economic management, participates in inspection, examination, and supervision of agency activities. State agencies, organizations, units, businesses; propagate and mobilize workers to study and improve their qualifications and professional skills, comply with the law, build and protect the socialist Vietnamese Fatherland . So what is the role of trade unions in helping workers participate in social insurance at non-state enterprises? Results of in-depth interviews with workers from two Business type shows:
- The role of trade unions in guiding workers to participate in social insurance is vague. Regarding social insurance contributions, workers mainly contact managers directly and rarely Contact the union. Even the role of trade unions in other activities of workers has not been clearly shown.
“In general, when starting out, I only know how to pay insurance through my manager and I haven't had much contact with the union. On holidays, we only pay through the union, the rest we pay for insurance through management. I have not seen the union participate in anything for more than a year. We mainly work with the manager, and then the manager works with the union, but how can we say anything?" PVS. Employee, Female, 25 years old, non-state enterprise.
“I have not received any support from the union, nor have I been updated with any information about my obligations and rights when I participate in social insurance. When you come in, just finish your work and then go home. So I don't know about that" , PVS. Employee, Male, 18 years old, non-state enterprise.
- Some opinions also believe that the trade union is just a puppet and is dominated by the management of superiors and the company's board of directors.
“Actually, the union is also controlled by the management of superiors such as the company's board of directors. They only have certain powers and can decide on certain things. In private companies, the director and deputy director still have the most authority in handling the company's general affairs" , PVS. Male, 38 years old, Employee at a non-state enterprise.
“In fact, the company's own union and Vietnam's union in general have almost no clear protection for workers. Totally depends on the owner, it does not operate independently. The nature of trade unions is to operate independently and protect the rights of workers to speak up for workers. In Vietnam in general, it is not like the world that has not yet been independent and that job still depends a lot on the employer's opinion" .PVS. NLD, 42 years old, small and medium enterprise.
- Trade unions rarely provide information about social insurance, workers mainly know information about social insurance through television stations. “Usually on the news or on TV shows, it is mentioned every time there is a change in salary before it actually happens. Then, closer to that time, the insurance company will notify each enterprise of the change and disseminate it to employees. In fact, employees also know about these things through many such information channels via the internet or TV and they also find out for themselves" , PVS. Male, 38 years old, worker at a micro-enterprise.
“The company's trade union rarely propagates or disseminates our rights when participating in insurance. It's almost only common once, many people get the information or don't get it, it's from the beginning," PVS, Male, 26 years old, non-state enterprise.
- Survey results from the project " Strengthening the rights of workers and union representatives in Hanoi in 2016-2017 show that the results are quite similar to the qualitative research above. For example: Among the surveyed enterprises, when asked whether the enterprise's workers have established a grassroots union? The response results showed that 92.3% of workers answered "have established, Only 1.0% of workers answered that the enterprise they work for" has not established a grassroots union. What is special is, still and 6.8% answered "don't know if the enterprise has a grassroots union (?) The fact that many workers do not know whether their enterprise has a grassroots union or not shows limitations in the following aspects: i ) Propaganda work about trade unions is not widespread, trade union activities do not have much influence on workers; ii) Workers themselves are not interested in trade union activities or representative organizations to protect their rights and interests. Union participation rate: Among responding workers, 81.7% of them are union members; 18.3% of workers answered that they are "not union members yet."
Figure 4.2. Workers' opinions evaluate the activities of the grassroots union
Graph of workers' opinions evaluating the community activities of the Communist Party of Vietnam
Effective worker protection representative: 48.4%
Ineffective protection of workers: 10.8%
Community trade activities are dependent on business owners: 28.1%
- Only 48.4% of workers affirmed that the grassroots union actually represented and protected the rights of workers effectively. This opinion, among textile workers, accounts for 52.9%, higher than the electronics industry, which accounts for only 45.3%; Women account for 50.0%, 8.0% higher than men (men account for 42.0%); Migrant workers, accounting for 47.1%, are lower than local workers, accounting for 53.3%.
- Only 10.8% think that the grassroots trade union's representation of workers is "ineffective; 28.1% of workers said that grassroots union activities are still under the influence of business owners.