Location, Time, Methodology and Research Methods


2.1. Objectives of the study

- Research and synthesize some basic theoretical issues about solid waste and solid waste management in Vietnam and Quang Ninh province.

- Assess the current status of solid waste collection, transportation, and treatment and forecast solid waste for the construction of a solid waste plant at km26, village 5, Quang Nghia commune as well as the operating phase when the plant comes into operation.

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- Propose solutions to improve the efficiency of the City's solid waste management and the production of the solid waste treatment plant at km26, Quang Nghia commune.

2.2. Research subjects:

Location, Time, Methodology and Research Methods

- Natural, economic and social conditions impact the process of solid waste generation in Mong Cai city

- Current status of solid waste management in Mong Cai city: sources of generation, current status of collection, transportation and treatment.

- Solid waste treatment plant; Evaluate the effectiveness of the plant's technology use; propose solutions to improve solid waste management efficiency in the area.

2.3. Location and scope of research

2.3.1. Location:

Mong Cai city is located in the Northeast of Quang Ninh province with geographical coordinates: From 21 0 02' to 21 0 38' north latitude ,

From 107 0 09' to 108 0 07' east longitude.

The North and East border Dong Hung town, Guangxi province, China; The South borders the sea; The West borders Hai Ha district

2.3.2. Research scope

The project researches the current status of solid waste management in the city in order to propose measures to improve the efficiency of solid waste management, contributing to the effective treatment of the km26 treatment plant, Quang Nghia commune.

2.4. research content

1. Theoretical basis for solid waste management.

2. Solid waste management situation in Vietnam and Quang Ninh province

2. Natural - economic - social and environmental conditions of Mong Cai city

3. Investigate and survey waste sources, components, properties, and volume of solid waste generated in the area;

Current status of solid waste management in Mong Cai city: Current status of solid waste collection, transportation and treatment and forecast of solid waste generated to 2020, orientation to 2030 in the city Mong Cai.

5. Overview of the waste treatment plant: scale, technology, expected capacity of the plant km26 in Quang Nghia commune, thereby evaluating the relationship between solid waste management of Mong Cai city and production of factory

6. Research and propose measures to improve solid waste management to contribute to effective treatment at the treatment plant

2.5. Research methodology and methods

2.5.1. Methodology

The thesis uses the following approaches: system approach, community approach, DPSIR synthesis analysis and evaluation, factor analysis

(1) systems approach:

Natural system: based on natural conditions such as terrain, land use boundaries and hydrological conditions of rivers, lakes and lakes of the city, plan a solid waste collection system and landfill.

Economic system: the main production factors in the city, the city develops in the direction of trade and services towards forming industrial parks and industrial clusters with modern technology and production lines. waste sources generated in the city

Social system: system of legal documents, policies at central, provincial and city levels on solid waste management.

Awareness and cultural level of behavior of indigenous people and tourists from all over the world regarding environmental protection in general and waste management in particular.

This approach allows for comprehensive consideration of aspects related to solid waste management such as the natural environment, society, economy, and institutions with the participation of stakeholders in the components of the system. solid waste management system (reduce, collect, reuse, recycle, bury) rather than just focusing on treatment technology (bury, recycle, reuse...) according to traditional way. This approach is considered an integrated solution to ensure sustainability when choosing planning and management solutions.

(2) DPSIR comprehensive assessment method:

This method is used to identify, analyze and evaluate cause and effect chains: causes of environmental problems, their consequences and necessary response measures. The structure of the model includes indicator parameters on the natural - economic - social conditions of the research area. Based on the characteristics and nature, these parameters are divided into 5 components: driving force Driver - Pressure - State - Impact - Response.

The scope of the study includes the entire administrative boundaries of 8 wards and 9 communes in Mong Cai city.

+ Dominant driving force: natural conditions, terrain, climate, hydrology of the city...; production activities, socio-economic development, strong urbanization rate, formation of industrial parks, industrial clusters, tourist and commercial areas... striving for class II urban areas.

+ Pressure: from the process of urbanization and strong development, typically striving to achieve the city's target of type II urbanization before 2016 brings great pressure on the city's environment in particular, especially The problem of solid waste generation, if not managed promptly, will significantly change the natural conditions, specifically the environmental quality of the city.

+ Current state of the environment: annual environmental monitoring reports on the current state of the land, water, and air environment show that environmental quality is gradually decreasing, directly affecting the regional community...

+ Impact: parameters reflect negative impacts on regional biodiversity, health and prosperity of the community.

+ Response: Measures and parameters represent the response to environmental and social consequences.

(3) community approach:

Using community outreach methods through many forms, discussions, interviews, surveys..., to quickly assess community awareness in solid waste management in the area, the implementation of regulations on solid waste management...contribute to assessing the current status of collection, classification, transportation and treatment of solid waste in the area.

(4) Factor analysis method:

Conditions, natural, economic, and social factors.

2.5.2. Research Methods

(1) Method of collecting secondary documents:

- Survey data is mainly collected from documents, articles, scientific reports, information on mass media (internet, radio...) and through surveys. Fieldwork at (field survey, from agencies such as Mong Cai City People's Committee, Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Environment and Urban Works Joint Stock Company...)

Selectively inheriting basic investigation documents and research documents of scientists related to solid waste management and treatment to forecast urban industrial and domestic waste, Specifically, Project code RD 06-01 was implemented by the Institute of Urban and Rural Planning, Ministry of Construction in 2011 with the title "Guidelines for designing waste collection and treatment systems in urban areas".

(2) Investigation method to collect primary data.

Using the quick assessment method using household survey questionnaires: a total of 200 questionnaires were issued, the survey questionnaires were conducted in Tran Phu ward, Ka Long ward, Hoa Lac ward and Hai Xuan commune (50 wards each). promissory note )

- Interview:

+ Interview subjects: comrades directly managing fields related to solid waste, specifically: comrade Ngo Thanh Tuyen (officer of the economic department); Comrade Nguyen Ngoc Thai (officer of Urban Environment and Construction Joint Stock Company) directly works on the transportation and treatment of solid waste; Comrade Pham Van Hien (Head of Planning Department - Urban Environment and Construction Joint Stock Company) on solid waste collection; Comrade Hoang Xuan Hoan (officer of the Department of Natural Resources and Environment) on the inspection and supervision of public utility activities undertaken by the Urban Environment and Construction Joint Stock Company. In addition, we also conduct direct interviews with households in concentrated urban residential areas of the city...

(3) Investigation and survey methods:

+ On November 15, 2013, conducted a field survey at Km 26 Quang Nghia landfill to understand the current solid waste treatment process and the progress of building a solid waste treatment plant. The collected data is processed using expert methods through photos taken in the field and data collection tables are set up according to available templates.

+ Survey of solid waste transit routes: quick assessment of garbage collection points, data on current status of collection points and level of environmental hygiene.

(4) Expert and monograph method: this method is used in the project for the purpose of consulting with teachers in the environmental industry and environmental workers at the facility. On the other hand, search books and articles, research projects that have been published, select, inherit and apply selectively, in accordance with the research content of the topic.

(5) Calculation and data processing method: Using Word software,

Excel to synthesize and analyze collected data

(6) Environmental modeling method: This method is used in the thesis to forecast population and solid waste generation rate in the area.

discuss Mong Cai city from now until 2020, 2030 through the growth - development model (improved Euler model) on the basis of current population data and population growth rate.

The improved Euler model is a mathematical model that helps calculate and forecast over a long period of time with the following formula:

N * i+1= Ni+r.Ni. t where:

Ni: population in 2013

N * i+1: population after 1 year (people) r: growth rate (%/year)

t: time (year)


3.1. Sources of solid waste in Mong Cai city

Sources of solid waste generation in Mong Cai city are mainly household waste from households and agencies, enterprises and units located in the area. Markets and shopping centers. Garbage from tourist areas. Industrial waste and construction waste caused by industrial and construction activities. include:

Household waste: generated from households, villas, apartments, hotels. This waste component includes: food, paper, cardboard, plastic, wood, glass, tin cans, other metals, household electronics, garden waste, tires... In addition, household waste contains part of toxic waste;

Agencies, offices, schools: arising from agencies, factories, schools, and offices. The waste components here are mainly paper, cardboard, plastic, wood, and food;

Markets and commercial centers: Mong Cai Plaza Trade Center, Hai Yen Trade Center, Vinh Co Group Trade Center 1, Vinh Co Group Trade Center 2, Dong Thang Trade Center. Currently, the whole city has 8 markets including: Mong Cai Central Market, Togi Market, Market 2, Market 3, Market 4, Ka Long Market, Tho Xuan Market, Hai Son Market. Types of waste from commercial areas and markets include: paper, cardboard, plastic, wood, food, leftover and damaged vegetables, glass, metal, tires, and household appliances. In addition, commercial waste may also contain some toxic waste;

Tourist areas: Tra Co - Binh Ngoc beach tourist area, Trang Vinh lake eco-tourism area, Quat Dong, Doan Tinh... The main waste component here is leftover food from restaurants and hotels . In addition, there is also household waste generated in daily activities.

Industrial parks, construction, ports: Industrial parks, industrial clusters of Hai Yen, Hai Hoa, Ninh Duong, 457 industrial and handicraft production establishments

Industrial areas are located interspersed in residential areas. Luc Lam port, Dan Tien,... The composition of industrial solid waste includes: non-toxic waste materials and toxic waste. Non-toxic waste can be disposed of with household waste. Toxic industrial waste must be managed and treated separately.

Agricultural waste: Generated from agricultural production activities such as planting, harvesting agricultural products, packaging of fertilizers, pesticides, waste from livestock raising and animal slaughter; Aquaculture activities follow intensive and semi-intensive models of aquaculture households in Hai Hoa, Tra Co, Binh Ngoc, Hai Xuan, Hai Dong, Hai Tien wards.

Medical waste: in Mong Cai city, there is currently Mong Cai General Hospital, 17 commune and ward health stations, 26 private clinics, etc. The main waste includes household waste and medical waste generated from medical examination, treatment and nursing activities. Particularly, medical waste has complex components including medical specimens, needles, medicine bottles, expired drugs, etc., which are potentially infectious and toxic to public health, so they must be classified. and organize separate collection, transportation and treatment.

3.2. Composition and properties of solid waste in Mong Cai city

The central wards of Mong Cai city are densely populated areas and where a large amount of MSW arises. As the living standards of urban people are increasingly improved, the amount of waste per capita is increasing. MSW in Mong Cai city has a relatively high proportion of easily decomposable organic substances (about 60.7%), the rest are hard-to-decompose solid wastes and industrial and handicraft wastes. . The composition of household waste in Mong Cai often changes depending on season, area and time.

The composition of Mong Cai City's domestic solid waste is shown in the following table:

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