Forecasting Waste Sources Causing Environmental Pollution From Coal Production By 2015

- Mist spraying method with Ejector in coal mining area at longwall.

- Screening coal by suspension method.

- High-pressure water spray method to create fog at coal export ports, screening plants and on coal transport routes.

- Green planting creates a dust protection belt.

- Concreting transportation roads and mine waste areas.

* Various types of wastewater treatment technologies are being implemented

Application of chemical and physical technology to treat wastewater is used to replace the simple, ineffective treatment method of previous settling pit solutions. Up to now, 40 mine wastewater treatment stations have been invested in and built, of which 24 stations have been put into operation. The first generation wastewater treatment stations applied horizontal sedimentation tank technology and pressure filtration such as Ha Rang, Ha Khanh, +260 and +320 Dong Vong, +41 Lo Tri,... Treatment stations The second generation such as Coc Sau, Vang Danh, Mao Khe have applied tilted settling plate technology to increase settling speed, while limiting the area of ​​settling tanks used compared to horizontal settling tank technology.

3.5. Forecasting waste sources causing environmental pollution from coal production until 2015

3.5.1. Forecast basis

a. Development plan of Quang Ninh's coal industry in general and mines in Hon Gai and Cam Pha in particular until 2015

For underground mines, it is necessary to stabilize output and gradually increase according to the progress of projects; For open-cast mines in Hon Gai region in 2 years 2015-2016, open-cast mining must end; In the Cam Pha region, Deo Nai and Coc Sau mines stabilized their current output, gradually increasing the capacity of Khe Cham 2 to 3 million tons/year by 2015 and Cao Son to 5 million tons/year.

Regarding mine construction, it is necessary to make plans and overall progress of works and projects; Complete the organization of mine construction forces in parallel with drastic direction of mine construction progress.

Units perfect technology and organize production to increase labor productivity, improve product quality, reduce costs... Units in the region or in the same production block need to proactively build and implement mechanisms. coordination mechanism, ensuring open production, no disputes arising, and no waste of talent and material resources.

b. Current environmental status of Ha Long and Cam Pha cities

Ha Long is a coastal tourist city, however, due to the influence of coal mining industry activities, the environment of the area is currently also more or less affected. The city's large coal mines such as Ha Tu, Ha Lam, Tan Lap, and Nui Beo produce nearly 6 million tons of coal each year. While coal output is increasing, environmental protection and state management in this field are not given adequate attention. Coal port planning along Ha Long Bay still has many shortcomings, the ports are scattered, Small scale, weak infrastructure and most of them do not have environmental protection works, causing serious pollution of coastal sea water. The air environment in residential areas near coal mines such as Ha Lam, Ha Tu, and Ha Phong is seriously affected by coal production and transportation activities. During floods, rainwater from high-altitude mining areas carries large amounts of sand, soil, pollutants,

In addition, other activities also put pressure on the environment of Ha Long City. Many sea reclamation projects during implementation do not strictly comply with approved technical design and environmental protection requirements. Residential projects, tourist areas, and sea reclamation areas all have regulations on environmental protection, and the preparation of environmental impact assessment reports has not been paid attention. Service business activities, exploitation activities, and aquaculture have a high risk of causing pollution such as dumping garbage, untreated wastewater, and especially oil spills.

Cam Pha is the largest coal mining industrial city in the country. During the development process, Cam Pha always faces environmental problems. There are dozens of coal mining units concentrated in Cam Pha city. Along with economic development, the environment is seriously degraded. Residential area, in which multi

The population living near the mine area is polluted with dust, the roofs and trees are covered with a charcoal color. Wastewater from coal mines flows from high to low in streams and sewers, carrying impurities that affect underground water sources as well as surface water sources in the area. Large waste dumps affect the environmental landscape, change the area's ecosystem, and can cause landslides and wash away soil and rocks during the rainy season. There is also an alarming situation: subsidence and cracks in people's houses due to the impact of mining and blasting activities, forcing some households to relocate.

c. Current status of environmental management of coal enterprises and Quang Ninh province

Recognizing the importance of environmental protection in the province for sustainable economic and social development in recent years, coal production and trading enterprises in Quang Ninh province have Coordinate with the People's Committee of Quang Ninh province to strictly implement approved environmental protection commitments, including calculating an increase in coal production in sync with infrastructure investment in the direction of "proactively protecting the environment". environment", coordinate with authorities in the area to build comprehensive projects to overcome environmental pollution left by many years of exploitation in the area such as improving the environment of waste dumps and water treatment works. Coc Sau waste, tree planting project to improve the environment. Develop environmental rehabilitation programs, environmental control plans, and coordinate environmental protection actions.

3.5.2. Forecast results

According to the expectations of the People's Committee of Quang Ninh province and the Vietnam Coal and Mineral Industry Group, by 2015, open-pit mining will officially stop some mines in Cam Pha and Ha Long areas. The number of temporary mines is the same as at present.

a. Forecasting air pollution due to dust

Mainly generated by the process of blasting and breaking rock (in open pit mines), coal mining (in underground mines), loading and transporting coal. Based on the Coal Industry Development Plan in Quang Ninh region to 2020, with a vision to 2030, it can be predicted that coal mining activities will emit a large amount of dust into the air, which is calculated and estimated specifically as stated in the regulations. Tables 3.18 and 3.19

Table 3.18. Forecast of dust load in open pit mining until 2015



Dust load (tons)*




Hon Gai region



Cam Pha region


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Forecasting Waste Sources Causing Environmental Pollution From Coal Production By 2015

(*) Taking the average coefficient, mining 1,000 tons of open coal will create 24 tons of dust

Table 3.19. Forecast of dust emissions in underground mining until 2015 [20]



Dust load (tons)*




Hon Gai region



Cam Pha region


(Source: Student Vu Xuan Lich)

Based on the above tables, the total amount of dust/year forecast to arise from coal mining activities in each planning period is summarized in table 3.20 as follows:

Table 3.20. Forecast of total dust load in coal mining in Ha Long City and Cam Pha City until 2015

Unit of measurement: tons/year


Type of exploitation

Dust load (tons)









(Source: Compiled by student Vu Xuan Lich)

From the above forecast parameters of dust emissions, it can be seen that the pressure on environmental pollution due to dust in the coming time will continue to increase, requiring strict and appropriate technical and management measures to overcome this problem. can limit pollution affecting the environment of urban residential areas in Ha Long City as well as Cam Pha City in general.

However, thanks to the application of advanced and modern mining equipment and technology, and anti-dust methods, the amount of dust released into the air due to coal mining tends to gradually decrease and is certainly smaller than the figures. calculated above.

b. Forecasting of water pollution

Wastewater from open-cast coal mines is characterized by high levels of suspended solids, heavy metals, and oil contamination. On the other hand, when it rains, rainwater overflows through the open-pit coal mining area, carrying coal, soil, sand, residue, and grease into the area's drainage system. If this amount of water is not managed well, it will have a major negative impact on surface water, underground water and aquatic life in the receiving water body.

Estimated wastewater load from open-pit mining of coal mines is shown in the following table:

Table 3.21. Forecast of wastewater load in open pit mining until 2015

Forecast of wastewater flow of underground mines is shown in the following table:

Table 3.22. Forecasting wastewater flow in underground mining to 2015 [20]



Wastewater (1,000m 3 )

The whole province



Hon Gai region



Cam Pha region


(Source: Compiled by student Vu Xuan Lich)

Based on the total forecast volume of mine wastewater and the properties of wastewater, the impact of mine wastewater on the environment up to 2015 can be forecast as follows:

- Mining and dumping of waste destroys the terrain, destroys forests, and increases negative impacts on surface water: Rivers, streams, lakes and ponds dry up due to sedimentation, water flows are narrowed, and water collection basins are also narrowed. . In the future, the area will be greatly affected, especially Dien Vong Lake, Mong Duong River, etc.

- In the coming years, open pit and underground mining will go deeper and deeper, which will seriously affect groundwater such as destroying aquifers, reducing underground flows, and water pollution.

Seawater pollution increases due to high levels of sediment, acids and other chemicals. However, in the near future, wastewater from mines and coal processing plants will be treated before discharge, so water pollution will be limited.

- In coal loading ports along the coast, large rivers also cause water pollution, especially Cua Ong port, Nam Cau Trang port, Dien Vong port cluster, Troi port, etc. On the other hand, the transportation process Coaling by barges along the coast and rivers also causes water pollution. Pollution levels will increase very rapidly with increased domestic coal production and consumption.

3.6. Proposing solutions for environmental management in coal production

3.6.1. Build an environmental management system in each enterprise

Most of the current coal production and trading enterprises in the study area have departments in charge of environmental issues. Departments need to coordinate with state management agencies in ensuring the working environment and living environment. Environmental departments need to strengthen human resources and provide regular professional training for employees.

Provide regulations on environmental safety and environmental management for production units.

Strictly implement environmental laws.

3.6.2. Develop policies specifically regulating environmental protection for each enterprise

+ Landfill planning: Take advantage of internal waste dumping to reduce land area, reduce environmental pollution and create favorable conditions for land restoration later.

This. Dispose of waste in layers to save disposal costs and enhance the ability to restore landfills after exploitation;

+ Planning of transportation and coal export ports: Planning ports in a centralized manner to facilitate mechanization of loading and unloading and handling environmental problems of dust and wastewater. Changing the form of transport from cars to other forms of transport (transportation by conveyor belt) in a way that causes less environmental pollution;

+ Environmental improvement and restoration in areas and mines upon completion of mining


+ Prepare and implement specific plans on environmental protection for the

Key localities with mineral activities: Ha Long City and Cam Pha City.

+ Every year, have specific and clear plans to strictly implement the State's administrative decisions on procedures for preparing, appraising and implementing the contents of environmental impact assessment reports and normative documents. Law on minerals and environmental protection.

3.6.3. Build an environmental protection fund for each enterprise

Table 3.23. Funding for building an environmental protection fund for some coal mines


Facility name



(billions dong)




Coal company

Hon Gai

Cleaner production



Vietnam coal and mineral industry - Vinacomin


Cao Son Coal Company

Prevent incidents, protect the environment




Propaganda, education, environmental measurement, monitoring, and collection

waste treatment.


3.6.4. Develop an environmental management and monitoring program

a. Environmental management program

The objective of the environmental management program is to provide guidelines for making the project environmentally sound. Environmental management includes environmental mitigation programs, reporting requirements, environmental management plan implementation structures and emergency response plans for incidents that may occur.

* Implementation organization

The implementation of the environmental management plan must comply with Vietnamese regulations, carried out by the following units:

- Project owner: will implement the state's environmental management program together with the Department of Natural Resources and Environment of Quang Ninh province. The project owner will staff a number of part-time environmental officers under the Labor Safety Committee to supervise, manage and perform related tasks.

- During project implementation, there will be the participation of environmental consultants from an organization with legal status at ministerial level: with a license to register scientific, technological and environmental activities of the Vietnamese State. Male level. Environmental consultants will be responsible for training and improving the capacity of relevant organizations and officials to enable them to carry out environmental management. Environmental officers will be responsible for guiding and training project owners on environmental issues such as on-site inspections and supervision during project implementation to ensure that proposed procedures are followed. appropriately and completely.

* Organize environmental monitoring and reporting

During the implementation of the monitoring program, it is necessary to comply at least every 6 months to ensure the effectiveness of mitigation measures.

Environmental consultants are hired by the project owner to monitor environmental quality under the supervision of part-time environmental officers. Consultants will provide technical assistance to project owners and environmental officers in implementing environmental management. At the same time, the consultant will be responsible for preparation and submission

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