Forecasting the Volume of Hospital Solid Waste of Mong Cai

The composition of industrial solid waste has many hazardous substances that are difficult to decompose in landfill conditions such as heavy metals, greasy rags, nylon, chemicals... Besides, some types of hazardous waste It is very easy to decompose, causing odors, rot and danger to people's health such as waste products from the tea processing industry, seafood processing... Some waste contains radioactive substances such as waste from the mining industry. products, construction materials, etc. Therefore, waste collection facilities of industrial clusters and points will have to carefully classify waste right at the source to have appropriate treatment directions, which types can be used. buried, which types can be burned... at the same time, industrial clusters can contact and make contracts with environmental companies to collect and treat regular waste according to scientific methods and proper procedures. Technical.

Hazardous waste must be treated by licensed companies in accordance with the provisions of Circular No. 12/2011/TT-BTNMT of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment .

* Forecasting the amount of medical solid waste generated

According to the standards specified in the solid waste management strategy in urban areas and industrial parks in Vietnam by 2020 approved by the Prime Minister, the volume is 1.8 - 2.2 kg/bed/day for for household solid waste and a volume of 0.36 - 0.55 kg/bed/day for toxic solid waste from hospitals.

From reality and through preliminary investigations at a number of medical examination and treatment facilities in Mong Cai, it can be seen that medical facilities in Mong Cai have quite poor facilities and the number of patients is not many because Most dangerous cases are transferred to higher levels; or go to China for treatment. From there, the hospital solid waste standards for medical facilities in Mong Cai can be set at a low level as follows:

- Domestic solid waste standard: 1.8kg/bed/day

- Hazardous medical solid waste standards: 0.36 kg/bed/day Bed size

According to the growth forecast of Quang Ninh's health sector, by 2020, the total number of hospital beds will reach the standard of 29 beds/10,000 people.

Mong Cai's population is expected to reach 12 thousand people by 2015, 17.5 thousand people by 2020 and 19 thousand people by 2030. Thus, the total number of hospital beds at all medical facilities in Mong Cai area by 2015 will be 348 beds, by 2020 there will be 507 beds and by 2030 there will be 551 beds.

Table 3.16- Forecast of hospital solid waste volume in Mong Cai


Number of hospital beds

Domestic waste (kg)

Hazardous waste (kg)













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Forecasting the Volume of Hospital Solid Waste of Mong Cai

Hazardous medical solid waste mainly consists of: body tissues and organs, tubes and needles, cotton swabs, disease-causing germs... so it must be treated by incineration. , other types of household waste need to be completely collected, sorted and treated as regular waste.

3.5. Solid waste treatment plant at km 26, village 5, Quang Nghia commune

- The solid waste treatment plant's location was approved by the People's Committee of Quang Ninh province in Decision No. 1204/QD-UBND dated April 27, 2010 "on approving the location to build a solid waste treatment plant and landfill." garbage at km26, village 5, Quang Nghia commune"; On August 9, 2010, the People's Committee of Quang Ninh province issued Decision No. 2352/QD- UBND "on approving the detailed planning task of building a 1/500 scale solid waste treatment plant and landfill site." at km26, village 5, Quang Nghia commune" with the immediate goal of solving the overload of existing landfills that are affecting the environment and development of the city.

The project is divided into 02 phases:

The first phase builds infrastructure and a hygienic landfill with a capacity of 150 tons/day, suitable for burying all trash for about 2 years while waiting for the factory to be built and put into operation.

The second phase is to build a solid waste treatment plant to ensure treatment of the entire amount of household waste in the city. The initial capacity of the plant is calculated to be 150 tons/day, then built and upgraded. Factory capacity up to 500 tons/day.

3.5.1. Current status of factory construction

Results of field survey at the project land on November 15, 2013:

- The technical infrastructure of the waste treatment plant is only 90% completed, including items such as roads, leveling, and landfills (phase 1).

- The factory construction location at the time of the current status had just been leveled. Compared to the proposed project implementation progress, the project is currently behind schedule.

3.5.2. Factory scale and technology

(first). Scale:

The treatment plant is invested by Mien Dong Solid Waste Treatment Joint Stock Company to build a complex - a solid waste treatment complex in Mong Cai city with a total surface area of ​​20 hectares (excluding burial area). fill up toxic waste).

- Construction area :

Total land area 200,000m2 Total construction area: 53.80%

Green parks and biological lakes: 46.2%. These include items in table 3.15:

Table 3.17 – Categories of solid waste treatment plants


Name category

The main projects

Auxiliary works


Main factory

Company office


Inorganic processing factory

Production executive


Inorganic recycling factory for brick production

Scale foundation


Plastic recycling factory

Biological experiment garden


Medical waste sorting factory

Dormitory for workers


Medical waste incinerator

Public bathroom and WC


Drying yard, containing Block bricks

Employee parking garage


Plastic sorting and drying yard

Road + auxiliary works



Circulating water tower


Wastewater treatment facilities


Co2 recovery treatment factory


Electromechanical factory

Source: Eastern Solid Waste Treatment Joint Stock Company [8]

(2) Processing technology:

The waste treatment plant is built on a Vietnamese high-tech line, manufactured and installed by Vietnam High Technology Transfer Joint Stock Company (Hanoi) in association with the Vietnam Institute of Scientific and Technical Design. put.

The Plant's treatment technology is biotechnology according to international standards, high-speed aerobic fermentation of waste. The plant's technological line processes organic waste and converts it into compost humus, then produces high-quality biological fertilizer to serve agricultural production. Particularly inorganic waste is processed to produce Block bricks for construction.

Plastic waste, nylon bags, glass, iron, aluminum... are recycled into plastic pellets to supply to industries. The treatment technology process is shown in diagram 3.4




Second sorting conveyor

Chain conveyor

Excavator pours into bulke

Conveyor belt 2

The drum rotates and tears the bag 1 time

Conveyor belt 3 classified for the 3rd time

Weigh and bag

CO 2 + CaO gas


CaCO 3 light powder

My fourth mud toilet

Nylon plastic




Bricks, bricks

Lamp battery

Pressing bricks

Vibrating sieve

Screw conveyor



Clear water

Water pump

The barrel rotates and tears the bag a second time

The water tank removes inorganic waste


Mesh conveyor belt collects organic waste

Cone screw mill


Water press

Bioreacter system for high-speed aerobic biological incubation

Compost stool

CO 2 gas

Conveyor belt 4, 4th classification

Diagram 3.4 - Technological process of domestic solid waste treatment

* Waste classification and treatment technology to create high-quality biological compost

Waste collected from places is transported to the factory, through a weighing system to determine the volume to suit the factory's capacity, garbage is dumped into a receiving area with preliminary classification equipment using a wheel loader, Large-sized waste or special-shaped waste must be preliminarily classified before being put into the production line.

Garbage after preliminary classification is dumped into the bulke by the backhoe. Below the bulke there is a screw conveyor that transfers it to rubber conveyor No. 1 for the second preliminary classification.

After the second preliminary classification, transfer to rubber conveyor number two to bring waste to the rotating floor. 1, tear off bags and sift into different types: Garbage under 25mm in size, inorganic garbage falling into the lake and sorting out. sandy soil, gravel, broken glass by density.

The waste passed through the No. 1 bag-tearing screen is poured onto the No. 3 rubber conveyor belt for a third classification to remove nylon, plastic, rubber, brick, stone, concrete, etc.

After the third classification, transfer to the No. 2 rotary screen, tear the bag and continue to remove the trash that can still pass through the 90mm hole, then pour it onto the No. 4 rubber conveyor belt 20m long for final manual classification. non-organic waste.

All types of organic waste on the conveyor belt are passed through a chopping machine and put through a crusher, grinding into powder with a size of 1 ~ 50mm, used as raw material for fertilizer production.

Waste smaller than 90mm passes through the No. 1 and No. 2 rotating sieves into the water tank. Waste weighing > 1mm sinks to the bottom of the tank, mainly debris and may contain a few metals or a few other substances with high proportions. The weight is greater than water, it is transferred out of the washing tank by means of a screw conveyor, the submerged garbage is put on a vibrating screen with 3 layers of mesh, sifting out all types.

> 50mm > 25mm and >10mm, batteries, toxic substances.

Floating garbage is pushed by specialized equipment and water pressure to a mesh conveyor belt. The mesh conveyor belt will separate the water and release it continuously to transfer it to the cone crusher to crush it as raw material for fertilizer production.

Water and humus are separated from the mesh conveyor belt and brought to the sedimentation tank: Fresh sludge is recovered and transferred to the mixer with crushed trash powder, mixed well to force the water to maintain the right moisture level.

requires biological reactions of microorganisms, transferred to high-speed aerobic biological fermentation.

Types of wastewater follow the drainage path through the septic tank system, dirty water from the classification tank and other places are brought to the septic tank of the wastewater treatment system, using sand filtration technology, water humus filtration and microbiological treatment. The materials in the anaerobic tank pass through the internal filtration system and are transferred to the water tank for further use. The evaporation water circulation process gradually dries up and will be supplemented from the water pumping system. The sludge deposited in the lake is sucked up and mixed with trash powder, water is pressed to maintain moisture suitable for the fermentation process of compost production.

* Producing pure organic microbial compost

Garbage powder is mixed with fresh sludge from the wastewater treatment tank, through a press, the water is pressed to a suitable moisture level for the technological process, used as raw material for biological fermentation, and to produce organic microbiological compost.

Mixing and supplementing microbial colonies, biological fermentation to produce organic biofertilizers, in the Bioreator system automatically controls feeding, mixing and circulating air, automatically adjusting temperature from 40 ~ 75 o C, humidity according to technological process during aerobic fermentation.

Raw materials from mixed waste powder are supplemented with biological fermentation microorganisms using high-speed aerobic technology, with a cycle of 13-15 days.

* Biological products for waste treatment:

Microorganisms (liquid and solid): A combination of microorganisms that metabolize carbohydrates, proteins, oils, fats, chitin, etc.; A combination of microorganisms that metabolize aromatic organic compounds that do not contain halogens and contain metals. heavy type etc...

Nutrients (liquid): Combination of nutrients; Micronutrients: Thermophilic and thermotolerant microorganisms that participate in decomposing waste:

- Paenibacillus sp

- Nocadioposis alba

- Bacillus lichenformis

- Ochrobactrum intermedium

- Steptomyces sp. XKS2

- Sphigomonas sp

- Some other microorganisms (indigenous)

* Waste water treatment technology. Step 1 - Preliminary treatment:

Including fresh waste water reservoir, garbage separator & lime mixing tank, conditioning tank, lime sedimentation tank. The collected wastewater is preliminarily aerated, separates trash while stabilizing the input wastewater and removing metals in the wastewater.

Step 2 - Decalcification tank + physicochemical pretreatment tank:

Used to treat calcium deposits in leachate. The decalcification tank is equipped with a chemical injection system as a physical and chemical pretreatment tank to enhance the biological treatment process.

Step 3 - Biological reactor assembly:

Use COD and BOD oxidation simultaneously with nitrification and denitrication processes. The tank is installed with a gas distribution system at the bottom of the tank to create fine bubbles. Gas is supplied intermittently through control valves.

Step 4 - Physical and chemical treatment tank:

Use coagulants to treat suspended substances in leachate and partially treat color.

Step 5 - Oxidation tank:

Using strong oxidants to oxidize difficult-to-decompose pigments and pollutants, using 2 consecutive levels increases the efficiency of the oxidation process.

Step 6 - Filter tank + disinfection:

Treat suspended sediments in wastewater with a system of filter tanks and sand using NACLO chemicals to disinfect wastewater.

Step 7 - Sludge treatment system:

Excess sludge from the treatment stages is pumped to the sludge tank and compressed. Sludge from the tank will be collected and transported to the landfill cells of the landfill

* Proposed technological line for leachate treatment

The wastewater treatment technology line designed by Vietnam Water Supply and Drainage Construction Joint Stock Company meets the unique characteristics of landfill wastewater, especially high N content, high COD and difficulty in treatment. The chain also meets the spirit

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