The more you participate, the more actively you participate in the social insurance program. Regarding the field of operation, the enterprise operates in the following fields: financial, banking and insurance enterprises; Information Communication; Wholesale, retail, repair of cars and motorbikes; Professional scientific and technological activities; health and social assistance; Education and training have a higher participation rate in the social insurance program than other fields.
From 2016 to 2018, there was a change in the proportion of businesses participating in the social insurance program by economic sector: businesses operating in the field of health and social assistance tended to participate. social insurance programs more than businesses operating in other fields; There was a clear decrease in social insurance participation in enterprises operating in the fields of finance, banking and insurance (2017 compared to 2018). Participation in social insurance is influenced by the type of business; revenue, labor scale; Enterprise scale and development of each field in which the enterprise does business. Currently, there is also discrimination against older workers in Hanoi. The role of trade unions in guiding workers to participate in social insurance is still vague. Regarding social insurance contributions, workers mainly contact managers directly and rarely contact them. contact with the union. New regulations of the social insurance law in the direction of expanding the number of participants in compulsory social insurance, along with sanctions for violations of the law, also affect the behavior of employers and employees. Participate in social insurance.
Factors in the organization of social insurance implementation, especially procedural reform and information technology application in social insurance revenues and expenditures, also affect the proportion of businesses saying they find it "more favorable to social insurance reforms." However, there are still some procedures and specialized software used for social insurance that are not complete, so they also affect the payment and enjoyment of social insurance for employees of the enterprise.
The element of communication and information dissemination on social insurance also affects the participation in social insurance of businesses and employees. However, there is no direct measurement data on the impact of communication and information on social insurance. Actual behavior of employees participating in social insurance. In addition, the social responsibility of businesses also affects employees' participation in social insurance.
In this chapter, the PhD student also proposed a number of solutions to improve the effectiveness of social insurance participation of workers in non-state enterprises, including: Improving policies and laws related to social insurance ; expand and develop social insurance participants at non-state enterprises; management of social insurance collection; Regarding reform of administrative procedures in implementing social insurance ; Coordination between departments, branches and social insurance agencies; Complete organizational and administrative work on revenue management for businesses; Support businesses and workers to develop; Establish grassroots party and trade union organizations in enterprises. Maybe you are interested!
Maybe you are interested!
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Our Party and State always pay attention to developing the country's social security system, including a social insurance policy system suitable to the country's socio-economic conditions in each period. Social insurance has become a main pillar of the social security system in the socialist-oriented market economy, making an important contribution to achieving progress, social justice, and ensuring political stability. politics - society, people's lives, sustainable development of the country. Social insurance policy has gradually affirmed and promoted its role as a main pillar of the social security system, a replacement guarantee, or partial compensation for workers' income when they encounter problems. must take risks in life. The social insurance fund has become the largest security fund, operating on the principle of contribution - benefit and sharing between workers of the same generation and between generations participating in social insurance. Social insurance coverage according to the provisions of law, the number of people participating in social insurance is increasingly expanding, the number of people receiving social insurance is constantly increasing. Retirement, death benefits, sickness, maternity, labor accidents, occupational diseases and unemployment insurance regimes have been gradually improved, becoming more and more synchronized, in accordance with the country's reality and practice. international. However, the development and implementation of social insurance policies still have many limitations and inadequacies. The policy and legal system on social insurance has not kept up with the socio-economic development situation, and has not adapted to the process of population aging and the emergence of new labor relations. The expansion and development of social insurance participants is still below potential; Social insurance coverage increases slowly; The number of people receiving one-time social insurance increases rapidly. The situation of payment evasion, debt payment, fraud, and social insurance benefits are slowly being resolved. Pension and death funds are at risk of imbalance in the long term... To implement Resolution 28-NQ/TW on reforming social insurance policy so that social insurance is truly a main pillar of the system Social security, gradually and steadily expand social insurance coverage, towards the goal of universal social insurance , it is necessary to identify specific goals associated with each stage of the country's development:
Period to 2021: Strive to have about 35% of the working-age workforce participate in social insurance, of which farmers and informal sector workers participating in voluntary social insurance account for about 1% age workforce; About 28% of the working-age workforce participates in unemployment insurance; About 45% of people after retirement age receive pensions, monthly social insurance and social retirement benefits; The rate of electronic transactions reached 100%; perform level 4 online public service; reduce the number of transaction hours between social insurance agencies and businesses to reach ASEAN 4 level; The index assessing the satisfaction level of social insurance participants reached 80%.
Period to 2025: Strive to have about 45% of the labor force of working age participate in social insurance, of which farmers and informal sector workers participating in voluntary social insurance account for about 2,000,000. 5% of the workforce in this age group; About 35% of the working-age force participates in unemployment insurance; About 55% of people after retirement age receive pensions, monthly social insurance and social retirement benefits; The index assessing the satisfaction level of social insurance participants reached 85%.
Period to 2030 : Strive to have about 60% of the working-age workforce participate in social insurance, of which farmers and informal sector workers participating in voluntary social insurance account for about 5% age workforce; About 45% of the working-age force participates in unemployment insurance; About 60% of people after retirement age receive pensions, monthly social insurance and social retirement benefits; The index assessing the satisfaction level of social insurance participants reached 90%.
At the same time, identify reform contents to expand social insurance coverage, towards the goal of universal social insurance, ensuring the legitimate and legal rights and interests of social insurance participants as follows: : Building a multi-layered social insurance system including (1) Social pension benefits; (2) Basic social insurance, including compulsory social insurance and voluntary social insurance; (3) Supplemental pension insurance; Amend regulations on minimum social insurance participation conditions to enjoy flexible retirement benefits at the same time as adjusting the pension calculation method according to the principle of contribution - benefit, fairness, equality, sharing and lasting. Expanding the number of participants in social insurance
forced to other target groups; Strengthen the connection and support between social insurance policies as well as the flexibility of policies to achieve the goal of expanding coverage; Reforms in policy formulation and implementation to strengthen trust and increase the level of satisfaction of participants in the social insurance system; Accelerate the process of increasing the number of workers participating in social insurance in the informal sector; Amend and overcome the unreasonableness of the current pension insurance regime in the direction of being more flexible in terms of retirement benefits, stricter in regulations for enjoying one-time social insurance benefits, and increasing the retirement age. actual average of workers; Make adjustments to increase the retirement age according to the roadmap; Amend regulations on social insurance payment rates and bases to achieve the goal of expanding social insurance coverage; Adjust the accumulation rate to achieve the maximum pension rate in accordance with international practice; Diversify the portfolio and investment structure of the Social Insurance Fund according to the principles of safety, sustainability and efficiency; Adjust pensions relatively independently in relation to the salary of working people, change the way pensions are adjusted towards sharing.
In general, social insurance policies are gradually shifting from voluntary to mandatory policies and are on the path to universal social insurance organized by the State with widespread participation of the people. In addition, the fairness of the social insurance policy system is expressed through the principles of contribution - benefit, fairness and sharing. The State does not participate in a widespread manner, but only supports the difficult, disadvantaged, and vulnerable people, the poor in remote areas, especially difficult areas, people with meritorious services to the revolution, and the people of Vietnam. armed forces,... so that they have more financial conditions to participate like other subjects. Without this support, millions of poor people may fall into poverty and hunger when they are seriously ill or ill. , long days...
The thesis has analyzed the overview of existing research results and presented theoretical and practical basis, along with survey results and statistics on social insurance participants in enterprises and influencing factors. regarding the participation in social insurance of employees in enterprises, although there are some limitations in the research sample, the thesis has also achieved some of the following main results.
1. For many years, the Party and State have always paid attention to social security policies, especially social insurance to improve people's lives. Policies and laws on social insurance are constantly being improved to realize the goal " Citizens have the right to ensure social security as recognized by the Constitution (2013), meeting the requirements of the economic development process." socialist-oriented market and international integration, gradually realizing the goal of "Rich people, strong country, fair, democratic, civilized society, suitable to socio-economic conditions in each country". stage of development of the country.
2. Although social security and social insurance have made some progress recently, the coverage area is still narrow, not ensuring the security needs of workers and complying with the provisions of labor law and social insurance. The proportion of workers participating in social insurance in enterprises in general is still low compared to the total workforce and the total number of salaried workers. The annual increase rate of social insurance participants is still low, only corresponding to the number of people leaving the policy system to enjoy one-time social insurance. Therefore, implementing the goal of universal social insurance remains difficult. challenge.
3. Labor relations in the market economy are both economic and social, unified, contradictory, equal, unequal, and individual. It has both a collective nature, in which the highlight is that employees are always in a weaker position compared to employers. The union's role in representing and protecting workers will help balance the relationship between workers and employers in the enterprise. However, the representative nature of the grassroots trade union is still limited, so the performance of its role is limited, thereby affecting the gathering of union members to join the organization.
4. The social insurance relationship has both social security and economic properties, so the behavior of employees participating/not participating, high/low social insurance payment levels, salary levels... affects employees' participation in social insurance. The awareness of a part of workers, because of their immediate needs, benefits and real life difficulties, "agrees with the employer in reducing the salary paid for social insurance, and even does not participate in it." Social insurance, to enjoy more
Part of the salary is due to the business not participating in social insurance, which has long-term consequences for ensuring social security for workers in old age.
5. The system of policies and laws on labor and social insurance is still in the process of being completed, in addition, elements of policy implementation are also in the process of reform, improving operational efficiency. . Therefore, a part of employers often cuts the cost of security and social benefits for their employees in the enterprise for profit. The situation of evasion of social insurance payments and outstanding debt is still a fairly common phenomenon, and the level of compliance with social insurance laws by enterprises is still limited.
6. The thesis has some notable findings on the current status of social insurance participation of foreign invested enterprises (FDI) and non-state enterprises as follows:
- The number of workers participating in social insurance in foreign invested enterprises (FDI) and non-state enterprises is increasing. More workers in non-state enterprises participate in social insurance than the number of workers in foreign-invested enterprises.
- Enterprises with foreign investment (FDI) are very interested in gender equality issues, promoting female workers to participate in social insurance, doing better than non-state enterprises.
- Enterprises with foreign investment (FDI) and non-state enterprises are still facing many difficulties in supporting workers to participate in social insurance such as: information technology, real software Currently, electronic transactions are not convenient and effective; The processing and return of documents by post by the social insurance agency is still slow; Administrative procedures are still cumbersome, going through many unnecessary and complicated steps...
7. The thesis also tested a number of research hypotheses and identified factors affecting social insurance participation of employees in non-state enterprises including: Guidelines and policies and laws related to the field of social insurance; organize the implementation of policies and laws; workers; Characteristics of businesses and trade unions, corporate social responsibility...
8. Despite our efforts, this study only analyzed information mainly through secondary sources and also had limitations in collecting information from businesses on salaries and social insurance - These are sensitive issues for businesses, so many new comments are descriptive, analytical, and initially explain the participation in social insurance of employees in non-state enterprises. Evidence on the relationship between policies and laws and the behavior of participating in social insurance is still limited, there is no statistical evidence due to the lack of synchronized data for analysis. This topic needs to be further explored in depth to provide more scientific arguments for policy makers and social insurance agencies at all levels to research and evaluate the feasibility of current policies, from Accordingly, propose and recommend improving policies and laws on social insurance in the process of developing a socialist-oriented market economy and international integration.
From the above research results, the researcher proposes a number of policy recommendations to promote the expansion of social insurance participants in enterprises, overcoming the current situation of violating the law on social insurance in enterprises. .
2.1. For Congress
- Through monitoring activities, we recommend that the National Assembly soon research institutional reforms to perfect the legal system on social insurance according to the goals of Resolution No. 28-NQ/TW (2018) on social insurance policy reform. Accordingly, continue to improve the management mechanisms and organization of the social insurance implementation apparatus effectively and efficiently, meeting the requirements of the task in the new situation.
- Propose amendments and supplements to the Social Insurance Law to resolve problems and inadequacies in implementation; ensure social justice; ensure gender equality; One step improvement in social insurance finance; ensure the feasibility and stability of the policy.
- Strengthen supervision of the implementation of social insurance policies in enterprises, especially non-state enterprises.
2.2. For the Government, ministries and localities
- Create a healthy business environment, reform administrative procedures, improve competitive efficiency to promote business development and economic growth, thereby