Karma. The old village areas also account for a high proportion of land area, the percentage of population accounts for over 20% of the total population. The residential buildings of the population are mostly low-rise, arranged alternately with gardens and ponds, raising fish and cattle according to the previous family economic model.
Agricultural land area: Currently, the agricultural land area is about 1,799 hectares, of which more than 1,644 hectares are arable land, the rest is land for perennial crops, ponds and lakes for aquaculture. Out of about 1,700 hectares of agricultural land, the area in the field is 1,114.8 hectares. This is a favorable condition for organizing the urban space of Long Bien in the direction of forming a district with a harmonious architectural space between cultural, administrative and commercial centers... and neighboring areas; between architectural works and ecological green areas; between Long Bien and other districts and localities outside of Hanoi…
The urban picture of Long Bien district is the interweaving of urban land with agricultural land, and rural land with agricultural land. The architectural works without any high-rise buildings can be the highlight of the architectural space, the center of commerce, culture and administration.
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Orientation and Perfect solution
Long Bien district socio-economic development planning up to 2015
3.1. Factors Influencing And Orienting The Socio-Economic Development Planning of Long Bien District
3.1.1. Factors affecting socio-economic development planning in Long Bien district
* The trend of urbanization and industrialization, modernization
Long Bien is a newly established district, on the basis of transforming from suburban communes of Gia Lam district into an inner city district. This is the process of comprehensive socio-economic transformation according to the following regular movement trends:
- The process of economic restructuring oriented from industry - service - agriculture to service - industry - agriculture. This shift is not only the regular movement of the transition from suburban communes to inner city districts, but also the general movement of Hanoi's economy towards industrialization and modernization. However, for the newly established district, there is an urgent need, and at the same time, this is an area with favorable socio-economic conditions that allows that process to take place at a faster pace. Currently, agriculture in Long Bien district accounts for a very small proportion, has formed concentrated industrial zones of relatively large scale, but trade and services have not developed commensurate with the potential and location of the district. . So,
- The process of accelerating the construction of infrastructure systems: traffic, clean water supply and water treatment systems, commercial centers (markets, supermarkets...), cultural works (theaters) , museums, entertainment centers ...), infrastructure for services, industry, concentrated residential areas... according to the characteristics of a new urban area. For Long Bien, the above works are still lacking and inconsistent. So the rate of urbanization
Fast or slow depending on the process of building infrastructure in the district, in which the problem of capital for construction and site clearance are the most basic and difficult problems.
- The process of promoting production development, goods exchange and expansion of service activities, enhancing people's intellectual standards, training high-quality human resources commensurate with district-level roles and positions, especially the district of Hanoi capital. In the coming years, the process of urbanization in Long Bien district will continue to be very strong. The factor promoting the urbanization process is the objective movement of Long Bien, which is in the process of being mobilized from the communes around the inner city district of Hanoi capital. However, the expansion of the city, the process of urban development takes place very quickly, requiring the planning and construction of infrastructure to calculate the adaptability in a long time, to arrange and build facilities. production and service facilities to meet the requirements of sustainable development. Especially the process of urbanization, the economic restructuring towards reducing the proportion of agriculture,
- The development and expansion of the economic space of Hanoi Capital and the close connection between Hanoi and the provinces of the Northern key economic region. Especially the strong development of the economic triangle Hanoi - Hai Phong - Quang Ninh. Long Bien with the advantage of the gateway to the northeast of Hanoi will be located in the triangle area, the gateway to exchange goods and services. Therefore, service will gradually emerge as the most vibrant industry in the district in the coming time, and the share of agriculture will gradually decrease. The policy of economic development in Hanoi has been outlined in the master plan for socio-economic development of Hanoi capital for the period 2001-2010 approved by the Prime Minister in Decision No. 60/2002/QD-TTG February 15, 2002. Accordingly:
To develop the capital's agriculture in the direction of economic restructuring, high-class agricultural products in the direction of agriculture - urbanism - ecology, forming regions for the production of specialty goods such as clean vegetables, flowers , ornamental plants, fruit trees, creating a fresh and sustainable environment for Hanoi Capital .
At the same time, the policy of economic restructuring has been proposed by the District Party Committee, the People's Council and the District People's Committee in the direction of rapidly increasing the proportion of trade - services, and at the same time reducing the proportion of agriculture in the economic structure. economy. This policy is in line with the policy of restructuring the capital's economy towards industrialization and modernization proposed by the Party Committee and the People's Committee of Hanoi.
* The impact of technical progress and new technology
The Resolution of the Ninth National Party Congress has determined that by 2010 Vietnam will get rid of the state of underdevelopment and by 2020 Vietnam will basically become an industrialized, modern-oriented country . . Thus, in the planning period, the speed of socio-economic development in our country will take place very quickly and strongly, in which the application of information technology, new advances in science and technology in the manufacturing and service industries will be a strong and decisive dominant factor.
Resolution 15 of the Politburo and the Ordinance on Hanoi Capital also clearly defined that Hanoi must take the lead in applying new advances in science and technology and focusing on developing a number of key economic sectors. On the other hand, in the coming period, Hanoi will give more priority to the goal of modernization, innovation and application of modern technology, in-depth development. In particular, the application of new advances in science and technology is especially important for the socio-economic development of the district. That creates favorable conditions for Long Bien to focus resources on developing service industries, clean industry and ecological agriculture in line with the district's potential.
* Population size, labor and human resources
From 2005 to 2015, the process of urbanization in Long Bien district will take place at a very fast pace. Because it is an expanding development area of the city, along with the development of technical and social infrastructure systems, Long Bien will be one of the areas attracting people in the old inner city. and surrounding areas. According to the plan, the district has been implementing a series of key projects, having a large scale of the city and when completed, will attract a large number of people to live in. During the planning period
2005-2015, the rapid urbanization process makes the population change very complicated, the mechanical population growth rate tends to increase faster than in previous years.
* Ability to invest and exploit capital sources for socio-economic development in the district
Due to the position and role of socio-economic characteristics of the inner city district are fundamentally different from before, the transition from suburban communes to inner city districts of Long Bien has many notable points:
- The urgency of socio-economic change is more urgent, the change needs to happen at a faster speed. The requirements for the construction of infrastructure are more centralized, the volume is larger, so the requirement of large and concentrated investment.
- The characteristics of urban areas are production associated with life and cultural, social and political activities in a narrow space. The impact of production and daily life on the environment is very large, while the requirements for the human and natural environment are very high. To solve these problems requires a huge amount of capital, including: physical capital, monetary capital and human capital. This is a great pressure that requires focusing on solving, because this is one of the most important factors in the process of socio-economic transformation in accordance with the requirements of the inner city district.
- Investment potential: The district's land potential has not been effectively exploited compared to the old inner city districts. With the potential of land, on the one hand, Long Bien can attract more production and business establishments, trade and services, creating the ability to attract additional investment capital, especially in wards with funds. agricultural land. On the other hand, the ability to promote the construction of infrastructures quickly (space is still relatively open, the difficulty in land clearance is less), the level of investment concentration by budget capital is also faster.
The survey of the district's socio-economic status shows that, although the level of economic development is not high, the economic potential of the population classes is still relatively large. It is possible to mobilize labor resources and capital from the people to develop small and small industries
handicrafts, commerce, services and building infrastructures in the way that the State and the people work together.
As an area in the process of urbanization in the expansion and development area of the city, it is possible to take advantage of many preferential credit sources from the development investment funds of the State and the city. In addition, under open economic conditions, with a favorable location, Long Bien can attract capital sources in the form of foreign direct investment (FDI) and official development aid (ODA).
3.1.2. Perspectives and orientation of socio-economic development planning in Long Bien district
* Perspectives on socio-economic development planning
- Socio-economic development must be consistent with the development goals, directions and tasks of the Capital and associated with the process of accelerating industrialization and modernization of the country.
As a constituent part of the Capital, the socio-economic development process of Long Bien must necessarily be in line with the direction and development tasks of the city in the period of accelerating industrialization and modernization. . The Hanoi Capital Ordinance has defined: "Hanoi capital is the national political-administrative center, a major center of culture, science, education, economy and international transactions of the whole country. water..." [17, p. 7-8]. In the next 10 years, Hanoi must develop a comprehensive and sustainable economy - science - technology - culture - society, ensuring the basic construction of the material - technical and social foundation of the rich capital. beautiful civilized, elegant, modern, imbued with the identity of thousands of years of civilization, improving the material and spiritual life of the people; strive to become a typical center for the whole country and prestigious in the region.
To achieve that goal, it is necessary to exploit and promote all resources to build Hanoi with a synchronous, modern and environmentally sustainable urban technical infrastructure; firmly ensure national defense and security, social order and safety; economic development of the capital at high speed
high growth, reasonable structure, meeting the requirements of domestic economic development and proactively integrating into the international economy.
The economic development strategy of the capital is planned to ensure a quick and reasonable restructuring in the direction of services - industry - agriculture, achieving high growth as a driving force for the northern key economic region and country. Hanoi will prioritize the development of high technology in the fields of information technology - electronics, biology, mechanics - automation, production technology and use of new materials.
According to the above orientation, the master plan in the district must, on the one hand, investigate and evaluate the potential and comparative advantages of the district, and on the other hand, must be placed in the overall long-term development strategy of the Capital. It also means that in the process of developing and implementing the master plan, it is necessary to take into account the synchronous coordination between the planning of the district, the city and the branches and fields in Hanoi, creating planned cooperative assignment in a unified structure across the city and the country. For example, when planning infrastructure for the district, it is necessary to take into account the goals and planning of the city's infrastructure system and to achieve the socio-economic development goals of the city and Long Bien district.
- Implement the basic objectives, determine the right focus, take appropriate, creative and effective steps and solutions, accelerate the speed of socio-economic development, actively integrate into the regional economy. and international.
Long Bien district has just been established, the starting point is lower and more difficult than some other inner-city districts, so the implementation of socio-economic tasks and accelerating growth is a great challenge. . Therefore, in the process of socio-economic development, it is necessary to ensure a harmonious combination between solving immediate problems and creating all conditions for implementation in accordance with the defined strategic direction. To do so, it is necessary to correctly identify breakthroughs and key areas to take shortcuts and take the lead in order to accelerate economic growth. In particular, investment in infrastructure construction must be one step ahead and follow the motto of focus and decisiveness to create a basis for the development of service industries.
The socio-economic development required by the transition from inner-city communes to inner-city wards and districts is the basic content and urgent requirement of Long Bien district in the planning process.
In essence, the socio-economic development according to the requirements of urbanization has its own rules. In which, high investment level and speed for socio-economic development, especially urban infrastructure, economic restructuring are the most basic requirements. Only then will the socio-economic development really match the potential and position of the district, and Long Bien will really actively integrate with the process of industrialization and modernization of the country.
- To develop synchronously the urban infrastructure system, creating a favorable environment for socio-economic development.
One of the urgent problems of urbanization is the requirement to build urban infrastructure, first of all, the system of roads, water supply and drainage, and public welfare facilities. At present, the indicators on urban infrastructure in the district are still not synchronized, not meeting the requirements of modern urban areas. During the planning process, Long Bien will be given priority to invest in many large projects to modernize infrastructure. Therefore, the planning needs to pay attention to identify the synchronous development of the urban infrastructure system as the basic requirement and content of the planning.
Compared with other inner city districts of Hanoi, Long Bien has more favorable conditions in terms of site clearance and implementation of construction works as planned. In the construction of urban infrastructure system, the problem of fast and synchronous construction deployment will be more favorable. However, this advantage will gradually be lost if there are no specific solutions to ensure socio-economic development according to the defined plannings and plans, first of all, the land use planning. On the other hand, because it has to be built almost from scratch, it requires a large amount of capital and construction items. Therefore, when developing a plan, it is necessary to calculate synchronous coordination and take reasonable steps to create favorable conditions to promote socio-economic development.