Dust Load Generated From Transportation Activities


Coc Sau Mine


North Left Bank area +

Bac Phay area

Cam Pha



Thang Loi Area

Cam Pha



year 2008


South Quang Loi area

Cam Pha



Thang Loi Area

Cam Pha


Fat Mountain Mine


North itself

Ha Long

100 - 200


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(Source: Investigation and synthesis by student Vu Xuan Lich)

Cao Son mine: Waste soil and rock from Cao Son mine are dumped into the following disposal sites: Khe Cham III disposal site.

Waste dump in Seam Cluster 14 Khe Cham. Waste dump outside Dong Cao Son.

Bac Bang Nau landfill.

Temporary disposal site in Dong Cao Son area

Khe Cham III disposal site: The total volume of soil and rock from Cao Son mine dumped into this disposal site is 9.0 million m 3 .

Dong Cao Son disposal site: According to planning, the volume of Cao Son soil and rock that can be dumped into Dong Cao Son disposal site is 62 million m3 .

Bac Bang Nau waste dump: This is the common waste disposal area of ​​Khe Cham II mine (open pit) and Cao Son mine. The waste volume of Cao Son mine is 673.5 million m 3, starting to dump in large volumes . since 2013.

Temporary landfill in Dong Cao Son area: Storage capacity is 12.5 million m 3 , this area will end dumping in 2013.

Waste dump in seam area 14 Khe Cham: This area will dump waste to create a rock conveyor base to Bac Bang Nau dump. The volume of waste disposal is 6.0 million m3 , discharged from 2011, ending in 2012.

In the near future, the main waste dumps of Cao Son coal mine include the dump outside Dong Cao Son and the dump at Bac Bang Nau.

Dong Cao Son disposal site: During the period 2010 - 2012, the mine dumps its main waste at Dong Cao Son disposal site. During this period, all soil and rock from the mine will be transported to this disposal site by car. disposed of in the form of low landfill dumping.

Bac Bang Nau waste dump: Bang Nau dump area includes Bang Nau mine pit (East Bac Corporation) and Bac Bang Nau area. Currently, Bang Nau mine has ended exploitation and has been planned for Dong Da Mai mine (East Bac Corporation), Khe Cham II mine (open pit) dumping waste from 2010 ÷ 2015 and a part is reserved for the mine. Cao Son dumps waste to create a conveyor line.

The landfill is dumped in the form of a high dump from the highest level of +300 m down with a total disposal capacity of 673.5 million m 3 . This dump started dumping waste in 2013. Since 2011, Cao Son mine started using cars to dump waste from the +180 to +300 level of the dump in Bang Nau.

After finishing dumping, excavators will be used to renovate the side of the landfill into low floors with a floor height of 30 m. The bottom floor alone is designed to be 50m wide and at the edge there is a dike design along the route with a height of 5m and a dike surface width of 5m.

Coc Sau mine : Based on the exploitation schedule of Coc Sau mine, the ability to dump waste at waste dumps and in accordance with the waste disposal planning of the Coc Sau - Deo Nai - Cao Son open pit mine cluster to bring efficiency to the project. For the entire mine cluster, the waste disposal sequence is as follows:

Volume of waste soil and rock: 802,438,000 m 3 (of which: Southeast area:

13,595,000 m 3 ; Thang Loi Area: 587,070,000 m 3 ; South Quang Loi area: 76,308,000 m 3 ; North Fault B Area: 98,694,000 m 3 ; The North Left Bank area is 26,772,000 million m 3. )

Based on the general waste exploitation planning of the entire region, based on topographic conditions, actual status and selected exploitation sequence. Waste soil and rock from Coc Sau mine is disposed of as follows:

Northern Left Bank Area + Northern Fault B Area : 125,466,000 m 3 will be put into operation

Finally, Bac Tuong Cave is currently being used as an internal waste dump.

Thang Loi Area:

Period 2008 - 2015: Waste soil and rock from floors from +165m and above are dumped at Northeast Coc Sau landfill. Waste soil and rock from floors from +150m -120 m are dumped into Dong Cao Son landfill and landfill in Ta Ngan.

Period after 2015: Waste soil and rock from floors from +135m and above were dumped into the landfill in Bac Quang Loi (At that time, Bac Quang Loi mine had ended exploitation). Waste soil and rock from floors from +120m and below are dumped into the waste dump in Ta Ngan

Southeast area : The entire volume of excavated soil and rock is dumped into the landfill in the Left Bank area.

Fat Mountain Mine

After being broken down, the area's waste soil and rock become loose and crumbly, so when dumped from above and leveled by vehicle, it will create a large amount of dust. Dust generated during the disposal process depends on the volume of waste soil and rock, physical and mechanical properties, state and rolling distance of the waste rock, and height of the dump. Meanwhile, the mine has a large amount of rock dumped and leveled every year, so the amount of dust generated every year at this stage is extremely large. The large amount of dust generated will pollute the surrounding air. The area generating large amounts of dust is at two waste dumps in seams 14 East Wing and West Wing due to the large volume of waste dumping and leveling, but the impact on residential areas is insignificant. Waste dumps such as Chinh Bac landfill only dump small amounts of waste and have carried out environmental restoration, so the amount of dust generated is not large and does not pollute residential areas.

3.1.5. Coal warehouses

Almost every mine has at least one internal coal warehouse, which is where the mined coal is gathered before being consumed and exported through ports. Warehouses

Most of the coal dust is generated due to the entrance and exit of transport vehicles and the dumping of coal into the yard.

We evaluate a typical impact of Mong Duong chemical warehouse on the air environment.

The level of air pollution caused by traffic depends greatly on road quality, traffic volume, vehicle quality and fuel consumption. Currently, we do not have standardized data on the sources of pollutants emitted by vehicles, so we use the method of quickly determining the sources of emissions from vehicles according to the "Air Pollution Coefficient" in the document: " Assessment of Sources of Air, Water and Land Pollution", WHO, Geneva, 1993. The volume of coal transported through the port in one day is about 4,167 tons.

Thus, on average, there are 260 16-ton vehicles transporting coal into the port every day, equivalent to 11 vehicles per hour. The dust pollution coefficient from the process of transporting raw materials (According to Air Chief, chapter 13, Fugitive Dust Sources, 1995) is calculated according to the following formula:

For vehicles running with a load E 1 = 0.79 kg/kmvc and vehicles running without a load E 2 = 0.41kg/kmvc.

Note: kg/kmvc: kg/km of transportation

The generated dust load is calculated as follows:

Q = E xd

With: Q: Pollution load

E: Pollution coefficient

d: Transportation distance. The average length of the transport route in the port is 0.5 km, the travel distance of all 260 trips is 130 km.

Table 3.8. Dust load arising from transportation activities


Emission coefficient


Dust load




Run under load







(Source: Investigation and synthesis by student Vu Xuan Lich)

Comment: Dust arising during this period is inevitable. The amount of dust generated continuously, the level of impact is great. The amount of dust dispersed is very large over a very large area and project owners need to take mitigation measures to limit the impact on workers and the surrounding environment.

In summary: The impacts caused by dust generated during the transportation and dumping of coal at warehouses have a wide range of dispersion and are intermittent in nature. However, it still affects the health of workers working directly in the area and the surrounding environment. Therefore, investors will have appropriate mitigation measures.

figure 3.4: activities at the coal storage yard of cao son coal mine 3.1.6. loading and unloading 1

Figure 3.4: Activities at the coal storage yard of Cao Son coal mine

3.1.6. Loading and unloading coal at ports

Coal ports are almost isolated from residential areas. Due to Quang Ninh's terrain, seaports are built in key coal export areas.

Table 3.9. Some large coal loading ports in key coal regions





Capacity (million



Chemical Port

Mong Duong

Mong Duong –

Cam Pha

16,382 m2



Cua Ong Port

Cua Ong – Cam





Khe Day Port

Cua Ong – Cam


34,143 m2



Nam Cau Port


Hong Ha – Ha


20,000 m2


(Source: Investigation and synthesis by student Vu Xuan Lich)

Loading and unloading coal at ports affects the local air environment, mainly dust. Due to its location near the sea, the influence of wind causes a lot of dust to spread. Dust arises during the process of transporting coal from port to ship and vice versa.

figure 3.5: image of coal loading at nam cau trang coal port 3.1.7. effects of dust from 2

Figure 3.5: Image of coal loading at Nam Cau Trang coal port

3.1.7. Effects of dust from underground mining

The level and scale of environmental pollution in terms of dust from underground coal mines to the surrounding environment is lower than that of open-pit coal mines. In the table

3.10 shows some dust measurement results when machines work as well as at some working positions of workers in underground mines.

Table 3.10. Dust concentration in the preparation furnaces along the coal seam is at –25/+30


Dust measurement location

Dust concentration mg/m 3


In the furnace, prepare along the coal seam at –25 level

- When drilling, measure 2m away from the furnace mirror

- After 30 minutes of blasting, measure 5m from the mirror

- When manually shoveling coal.





In the furnace prepare along the coal seam level +30

- When drilling, measure 2m away from the furnace mirror

- After 30 minutes of blasting, measure 5m from the mirror

- When manually shoveling coal.




(Source: General investigation by student Vu Xuan Lich)

In table 3.11, it can be seen that the dust concentration in the longwall air at many times is many times higher than the maximum allowable concentration.

Table 3.11. Dust concentration in 9B East longwall furnaces -25/+30


Dust measurement location

Dust concentration mg/m 3


5m from the base of the longwall:

- When not removing coal from the longwall to the scraper trough.

- When the coal from the longwall goes down to the scraper trough.




In the middle of the longwall: - 3m from the drilling location.

- When transporting coal in the longwall.

- 35 minutes after blasting.





At the top of the longwall furnace, 5m away from the furnace along the coal seam at level +30:

- When drilling at the bottom.

- After blasting at the bottom.

- When loading and transporting coal in the longwall and removing coal.




(Source: General investigation by student Vu Xuan Lich)

It is noteworthy that here the number of respiratory dust particles with small diameters from 0.5 - 5 m accounts for 90% of the total dust particles. High silica content in dust is the main cause of pneumoconiosis in mine workers.

3.2. Wastewater source from coal production

3.2.1. Coal screening

a. Cua Ong Coal Selection Company

Cua Ong coal recruitment company is located in Cua Ong ward, Cam Pha city, Quang Ninh. The company includes 3 continuously operating plants: Coal sorting plant I, coal sorting plant II, coal sorting plant III.

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