Fishbein (1975). According to Ajzen and Fishbein (1975), behavioral intention will be influenced by attitudes toward the behavior and subjective standards of the behavior. Similar to TRA theory, the central factor in the theory of planned behavior (TPB) is the individual's intention to perform a certain behavior and the intention to perform the behavior will be influenced by three factors. factors such as attitudes toward the behavior, subjective standards, and perceived behavioral control.
Thus, according to TRA theory, the relationship to social insurance participation of workers in non-state enterprises will depend on the workers' attitudes and the standards and benefits from participation. Social insurance makes workers participate in social insurance. For the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the employee's intention to participate in social insurance is the factor that affects social insurance participation and this intention is influenced by 3 factors. awareness, attitude, and behavior of workers.
- The data results in table 4.1 show that there are differences in social insurance participation of workers in non-state enterprises in Hanoi. For example: the number of women (132,775) participating in social insurance is higher than that of men (91,299); The number of Kinh ethnic workers (219,151) participating in social insurance is higher than ethnic minority workers (4,923); The number of workers residing in Hanoi (188,109) participating in social insurance is higher than the number of workers residing outside Hanoi (35,965); The number of workers with permanent residence in Hanoi (195,569) participating in social insurance is higher than workers without permanent residence in Hanoi (28,505); The number of workers born in Hanoi (129,636) participating in social insurance is higher than workers born outside Hanoi (94,438).
The data results above do not reflect factors such as gender, ethnicity, place of residence, permanent residence and place of birth that affect workers' participation in social insurance. However, the data also suggests the possibility that factors such as gender, ethnicity, place of residence, permanent residence and place of birth may affect the participation in social insurance of workers in these industries. Non-state enterprises.
Table 4.1. Differences in social insurance participation of employees in non-state enterprises in Hanoi 13
Place of birth
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- Applicable subjects: Officials, civil servants, labor contracts of 6 months or more with participation in social insurance.
- Participation in social insurance of employees in non-state enterprises in Hanoi - 1
- Participation in social insurance of employees in non-state enterprises in Hanoi - 2
- Research on Factors Affecting Social Insurance Participation
- Participation in social insurance of employees in non-state enterprises in Hanoi - 5
- The project "Strengthening the rights of workers and trade union representatives was implemented by the Institute of Trade Union Workers, the Vietnam General Confederation of Labor in cooperation with the European Commission in 2016. This sociological investigation Includes 1,040 research samples, surveyed in 3 provinces and cities: Hanoi, Hai Duong and Vinh Phuc.
The results of logistic regression model data of the Project "Strengthening the rights of workers and union representatives show that three variables: gender, education level and age group of workers explain well for Research models; These three variables are all statistically significant; The research results are also significant in terms of the magnitude of the coefficient.
- Regarding gender, the more female an employee is, the more actively they participate in social insurance. If the employee is female, the employee's ability to participate in social insurance increases by 3.6 times. In order for men to be more active in participating in social insurance, it is necessary to consider gender balance in businesses as well as men must also enjoy the benefits that social insurance brings equivalent to those of men. female.
- Regarding education level, regression model data shows that the higher the education level of the group of workers, the more likely they are to participate in social insurance. This is completely consistent with reality because workers With a high level of education, they will have many opportunities to learn about guidelines, policies and laws and the benefits brought by social insurance. When they have enough knowledge and understanding, they will inevitably accumulation
13 Survey data of non-state enterprises in Hanoi conducted by the General Statistics Office in 2018.
actively participate in social insurance. The fact that the more educated a worker is, the more he or she participates in social insurance is consistent with rational choice theory. For example: in the process of considering individual employees and employers, choosing to participate or not participate in social insurance (including evading social insurance participation) is considered based on the calculation of the benefits received. and loss that according to them is the most beneficial for them when participating in social insurance.
Table 4.2. Logistic regression model of factors belonging to personal characteristics of workers affecting social insurance participation of workers
Personal characteristics of employees affect their participation in social insurance
Below high school
Number of children
No children yet
Over 35 years old
From 16 to 20 years old
From 21 to 24 years old
From 25 to 29 years old
From 30 to 34 years old
Note: * significant at the 5 percent level
**significant at the 1 percent level
The data analysis results above reflect the data of 3 localities (Hanoi, Hai Duong and Vinh Phuc), and do not reflect Hanoi's own data. However, the data results also suggest that gender and educational level of workers affect social insurance participation.
The results of in-depth interviews also show that education level affects workers participating in social insurance. For example: "The workers there are low-skilled, which leads to the situation of whether the company fully pays or not. Only when the social insurance agency sends an inspection or audit can we know that." ”. Reporter, Male, 42 years old, small and medium enterprise.
Thus, although there is not enough scientific basis, using available documents to analyze factors belonging to workers in non-state enterprises in Hanoi affecting social insurance participation. has partly suggested the influencing factors (awareness, attitude, behavior; gender, ethnicity, permanent residence, place of birth, education level, age group) of workers on the employment of workers. Participate in social insurance in non-state enterprises in Hanoi.
126.96.36.199. Workers' awareness of participating in social insurance
Many studies have proven: in many social issues, the perception of research subjects affects their attitudes and behavior. Awareness changes people's attitudes and social actions. For example: Bandura's (1977) social learning theory suggests that most learning theory is achieved through people's perception and thinking about things they have experienced. Authors such as Beck (1989) and Ellis (1962) argue that cognitive-behavioral theory assesses that behavior is influenced through perceptions or explanations of the environment during the learning process. In the field of social insurance, awareness affects the attitudes and actions of participating in social insurance of employees, so employees' awareness of the benefits of participating in social insurance will partly That affects their participation in social insurance.
The results of in-depth interview research show some main findings such as: the vast majority of respondents are aware that participating in social insurance brings benefits.
Many benefits for individuals and families of employees and participation in social insurance is necessary.
However, some workers are not fully aware of social insurance, do not understand the benefits that participating in social insurance brings, and some workers even confuse insurance. social and health insurance.
- Awareness of the benefits social insurance brings to employees
“In the long run, no matter what happens, social insurance will still have many good things for you. For example, if I have an accident at work, I will be covered by social insurance" PVS. Male, 25 years old, Non-state enterprise;
"Nowadays, when I'm young and working, I still want to pay for insurance so that if I get sick or something happens in the future, I'll have some benefits and my family will be less burdened with expenses, PVS . Male, 26 years old, non-state enterprise;
"Regarding social insurance, I don't think about retirement, but social insurance protects your health in case of accidents. When you get sick, you will have support from social insurance," PVS . Male, 27 years old, non-state enterprise.
The data results also show that some workers are not interested in participating in social insurance. For example: "I don't care about social insurance, I'm still in working age so I don't think it's necessary, it doesn't affect any of the benefits I participate in so I don't see the need." set. I haven't received anything from this insurance yet, including sickness and that, so I haven't put it aside yet. Maybe when something happens, I'll let it go, because it's mandatory so I have to do it. If it is voluntary, I will have to consider it."
PVS. Male, 43 years old, Non-state enterprise.
Some workers understand more about health insurance than social insurance. They think that health insurance is often used when going to see a doctor, but they do not see any benefits from participating in social insurance. That is also the criterion to evaluate workers' awareness of social insurance problems. Can be like:
"I still know about health insurance, but I don't know about social insurance. Health insurance is used regularly when I go to the doctor, but I haven't received any benefits from social insurance yet. " PVS. Male, 25 years old, FDI enterprise.
Some respondents understand that participating in social insurance is a benefit that the state gives to workers and employees, but they themselves do not see their rights in it, which shows that workers have not Be truly proactive in learning about and participating in social insurance.
- Awareness of social insurance payment levels of employees
Some workers do not care about how much insurance they have to pay and when they are required to pay, they pay. Can be like:
“Actually, at the company I don't care about paying insurance. I pay whatever I'm told to pay. Second, I only care about my salary, or if my salary increases after 3 years, for example, then the insurance increases. such as. Now I pay according to my salary, so I don't care about the salary anymore, but in fact, the salary I work for or the salary coefficient is the higher the salary, the higher the insurance, so the actual salary is less. , PVS, Female, 40 years old , Non-state enterprises
- Awareness of organizations that can support employees when participating in social insurance
Some workers do not understand organizations that can assist them in participating in social insurance at enterprises such as trade unions. Can be like:
“I don't understand unions very well, but I only understand that when they support workers' rights, unions are born. If you have any questions or comments, the union will stand up to protect you," PVS. Male, 26 years old, non-state enterprise.
Some workers have limited awareness of their social insurance benefits. Because they are afraid of losing their jobs and do not dare to protect their rights and interests, they get stuck with their employers and avoid participating in social insurance. Even many older workers, due to lack of understanding of social insurance policies and laws, have been taken advantage of by business owners to take leave in advance because businesses always want to find young workers who can contribute more to the company and business than older workers.
When dealing with social insurance procedures such as birth benefits, unemployment insurance, and health insurance, workers often work directly with the social insurance agency, not through the employer, but the Social insurance contributions are paid by the business owner. This has partly caused disadvantages for workers.
The in-depth interview analysis above shows that although employees admit that participating in social insurance is necessary, they are not interested in learning about the benefits that social insurance brings. , not enough knowledge about the content of social insurance, some workers even equate social insurance with health insurance, and do not understand the role of trade unions at enterprises. Because of the lack of knowledge about social insurance and the role of trade unions, workers may be at a disadvantage compared to business owners regarding the benefits provided by social insurance.
4.1.4. Factors belonging to the business
To identify factors affecting social insurance participation of non-state enterprises and foreign invested enterprises (FDI), a logistic regression model was established. The purpose of the logistic regression model is to identify factors that motivate non-state enterprises to participate in social insurance. The model's variable system is: dummy variable takes value 1 if the enterprise participates in the program and takes value 0 when the enterprise does not participate in the social insurance program. The model uses survey data from 3 enterprise surveys conducted by the General Statistics Office in 2016, 2017 and 2018. The multivariate model is analyzed using SPSS 20.0 software. The system of independent variables includes:
1. The enterprise type variable is divided into two groups: foreign invested enterprises (FDI) and non-state enterprises.
2. Economic sector variables are divided into 15 sectors: Agriculture, forestry and fisheries, mining; production and distribution of electricity, gas, and steam; Manufacturing and processing industry; Water supply, garbage and wastewater treatment; Build; Wholesale, retail, repair of cars and motorbikes; Transportation and warehousing; Accommodation and food services; Information and
the media; Financial, banking and insurance activities; Real estate business activities; Professional, scientific and technological activities; Administrative operations and support services; Education and training; Health and social assistance.
3. The variable enterprise size by labor is divided into 4 enterprise sizes including: Micro enterprises (1 to 10 employees); Small businesses (10 to 100 employees); Medium enterprises (100-200 employees); Large enterprise (200 employees).
Each independent variable has small variables assigned by the computer as the control group. C can be: independent variable 1 (type of enterprise): The variable type of enterprise (FDI) is the control group, taking value = 1; For independent variable 2 (economic industry), the variable Arts and entertainment is the control group, taking value = 1; Independent variable 3 (Enterprise size), the variable Large enterprises (>200 employees) is the control group, receiving value = 1.
The results of the logistic regression model data below show: First , the characteristics of enterprise type and enterprise size by labor both explain the model well. Second , most of these two variables are highly statistically significant, both of which are statistically significant at the 1 percent level of significance. Third , all research results are also significant in terms of the magnitude of the coefficient. C can be:
- For 2016:
+ Type of enterprise: the more non-state enterprises are, the less they participate in the social insurance program. Compared to enterprises with foreign investment (FDI), the difference ratio is: [0.21 vs. first];
+ The larger the enterprise is, the higher the social insurance participation. Odds ratio between enterprises with very small labor scale (1 to 10 employees); small businesses (10 to 100 employees); Medium enterprises (100-200 employees); Large enterprises (over 200 employees). The odds ratio is [0.04 – 0.2 – 0.3 -1].
+ Economic sector: especially medical and social assistance enterprises; enterprises operating in finance, banking and insurance; media information, the more actively participate in social insurance. For other industries, the difference is not large due to degree